Most famous buildings in the world [ part 2]

Thank you for making it to your number one informative , interesting and constructive construction site Construction web.This article is a continuation of our previous series on the worlds most famous buildings . Missed that ? Worry less Click here 

We hope you get inspired by this blog and travel more this year. Enjoy the read


1.BINOCULARS BUILDING 

The building is located in venice, Los Angeles United states. It was originally designed for an advertising company. In 2001 Google leased 100,000 square feet in order to increase employment presence in Los Angeles.

Google offices in Los Angeles

2. MAURITIUS COMMERCIAL BANK

The Bank is an ellipse which sits on 4 travertine clad pillars themselves resting on championship golf lawns covering the roofs of the service areas, staff canteen and kitchen. This building needs a full article on it’s own. Kindly come back for the full focus on mauritius commercial  bank building.

Mauritius commercial bank building at night

3. GATE TOWER BUILDING 

The 5th, 6th and 7th floors of this 16-story office building is occupied by an express highway – passing right through the building. On the building’s floor information board on the ground floor, the tenants for the three floors are listed as the Hanshin Expressway. You can’t alight there though as the elevator skips from the 4th floor straight to the 8th.

Gate tower building in Osaka Japan

4 RYUGYONG HOTEL 

Construction began in 1987 but was halted in 1992 as North Korea entered a period of economic crisis after the fall of the Soviet Union. After 1992 the building stood topped out, but without any windows or interior fittings. In 2008 construction resumed, and the exterior was completed in 2011. It was planned to open the hotel in 2012, but this did not happen. A partial opening was announced for 2013, but this was also cancelled.As of 2017, the building remains unopened

The Ryugyong tower hotel.


BEL AIR PROPERTY

The house features four levels, 38,000 square feet of interiors, 12 bedrooms, 21 bathrooms, three kitchens, an 85 feet infinity pool with a swim-up bar, a bowling alley, a candy room and a movie theater Upstairs, the home features an indoor-outdoor modern kitchen with a waterfall, a giant $1 million art installation of a Leica camera and a $2 million winding staircase.

Bel Air house
bel air house

6.KIEFER TECHNIC SHOWROOM

The Kiefer technic showroom is located in Austria. The showroom changes changes its shape to regulate the interior temperature. Read more about it Click here to read more about Kiefer technic showroom .

kiefer technic showroom

7. SANTA MONICA CIVIC CENTRE

This 300,000-square-foot structure is a parking garage, the building showcases a successful effort at saving energy and protecting the environment . Along with 900 spaces for traditional cars, the garage reserves 14 spots for electric vehicles and has storage for bicycle  The building is powered by solar panels which double as shades for cars on the roof.

Santa monica civic centre

8. FIRST WORLD HOTEL AND PLAZA

Located in Malaysia , First World Hotel & Plaza is the largest hotel in the world. Also known as Genting Highlands it comprises of two colourful tower blocks that house slightly over 7000 budget rooms overlooking the outdoor theme park at Genting Highlands. Extremely popular among visitors by virtue of having the cheapest rates, the hotel sits above the First World Plaza shopping center. It boasts of accommodating more than 33.5 million visitors since 2006.

First world hotel and themed park

9. CROSS TOWERS IN SEOUL KOREA 

The 21 000 square metres site is positioned next to the existing urban fabric in the future development zones of the Yongsan master plan. BIG’s design includes two elegant towers with a height of 214 and 204m. To meet the height requirements of the site, the exceeding building mass is transformed into an upper and lower horizontal bar, which bridge the two towers at 140m and 70 m height. The two towers are additionally connected through the arrival bar at the ground level – and a courtyard below ground.

biggest residential building in seoul korea

10. THE TWA FLIGHT CENTRE 

The TWA Flight Center was “designed before the age of computers and decades ahead of its time. The building uses concrete and glass to capture all of the excitement,  “At every view and every angle, there is something new to admire. 50 years after it opened, it somehow manages to feel like it’s still from the future.”

Twa Flight centre

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Fire safety and protection systems

Safari Park Hotel in Nairobi Kenya was on Saturday night razed down by a fire that started from their workshop. The incident drew my attention to fire protection systems that help a great deal when such a mishap occurs.

When a fire occurs injury and death might be due to asphyxiation from poisonous fumes,  burns from direct exposure to the fire, heart attacks because of stress and exertion, the impact resulting from structural collapse, explosions, and falls.

Not only does the life safety and property protection influenced by the design of the structure and its fire protection measure but also, they affected by construction material quality, maintenance and building content.

Balanced design depends on three systems to decrease the danger of death and risk to property as a consequent of fire.

The three systems are a detection system to warn occupants of a fire, a contaminant system to limit or restrict the extent of the fire, and an automatic suppression system to control the fire until it can be extinguished.

These systems of balanced design complement each other by adding fire resistance feature which is not offered by other components. Moreover, some balanced design component features are redundant which mean if a certain part is failed the other part will offer fire safety.

In addition, to apply an excellent physical balanced design for fire safety, a perfect education and training program needs to be integrated by the government.

PROTECTION SYSTEMS

  • Automatic detection
  • Automatic suppression
  • Compartmentation
  • Property protection
  • State of the art in designing for fire safety

Automatic Detection of Fire

The first and most important measure against fire, which is slow with smoke but without fire and low heat that does not activate sprinkler head, is an exact early warning.

From life safety point of view, detectors are substantially significant because they warn occupants close to the source of the fire to run away.

To alert fire department, alarm systems could be installed to decline reaction time of firefighters, increase the speed of rescue operation, and restricting the spread of fire and structural damages.

If detectors are fixed at corridors and connected to a central alarm, the evacuation of the whole occupant will be easy and potential injury and death will be reduced. Smoke sensing fire detector is the most usual detector that employed for early warning.

Generally, detectors need to be connected to continuous power supply and should have a battery as a backup for the case where power is failed.Automatic detector location is specified based on general building code requirements. In residential building, detectors should be provided in all sleeping rooms, areas adjacent to sleeping rooms, and on all level of the building including the basement.

The selection of suitable detectors is based on the number of storeys, obstruction rooms, amount of air movement, and other factors.

The installed detectors are vulnerable to various unanticipated malfunctions for example lack of maintenance because of human neglect, faulty of the power supply, and the act of sabotage.

AUTOMATIC SUPPRESSION SYSTEM

The purpose of the automatic sprinkler system (suppression system) is to control the fire at its origin. Despite that fact that residential sprinkler is not produced to extinguish the fire, but it is dependable and influential in limiting the fire source in the room until it can be stopped completely.

the suppression system

The automatic sprinkler can reduce the possibility of flash over that can be the dangerous event. Not only does the fire suppression permits access to building to help occupants out of the dangerous area but also allows the continuation of fire suppression. 

suppression system in the kitchen

 

Compartmentation of Buildings

Compartmentation restricts the spread of fire by dividing the building into compartment areas surrounded by firewalls and by fire rating floors and ceilings. Added to that, the spread of smokes and poisons fumes to adjacent areas of the building is limited by compartments.

Large and destructive fire beyond compartments is avoided by restricting total fuel load increasing the fire.

Not only do compartments provide a safe place for occupants for whom unable to escape such as elderly and handicapped but also safe refuge areas for the long time when the fire are blocked or filled with smokes.

The compartment boundary which is not combustible limit structural damages and substantially decreases the repair time after the fire. Generally, the repair is nonstructural and possibly it involves the replacement of doors, windows, switches, electrical outlet, wiring, heating ducts, and covers of floors, walls, and ceilings.

I would personally recommend the government should enforce a law in building fire resistant commercial houses and schools as well this will save lives in future don’t you think?

 

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Most Famous Buildings [ Part 1]

Hello, welcome to the best building and construction feed , the construction web. Have you read about Technic showroom  ? Today, March 16th 2017 we focus on the worlds most famous buildings part one, other subsequent similar posts  will be posted every Tuesday night. Enjoy the read , get inspired .

 

01. KANSAS CITY LIBRARY


Originally developed as a commercial and entertainment area in the 1880s, the Library District took its new name in 2003. The exterior wall resembles a book shelf.  The book spines measure 25 feet by 9 feet, and showcases 22 titles reflecting a wide variety of reading interests. Local residents were asked to choose which titles would be represented in the bookshelf hence the name “community bookshelf”

Kansas city library

02 PIANO HOUSE

You  thought you’ve seen it all ? Kansas city library is just a tip of the iceberg. I just stumbled upon one of the most bizarre, yet elegant dwellings — a house shaped like a giant glittering grand piano and a violin. Located in Huainan, China and built in 2007 by architectural students at local university, this is truly, well, captivating. The transparent Violin houses the escalators and the staircase for the main piano building which is currently being used as a showroom for city planners.

piano house by night
piano house front elevation

03 BASKET BUILDING 

The Big Basket building in Ohio USA , was built as the headquarters of the Longaberger Company, an American manufacturer of handcrafted maple wood baskets and other lifestyle products. It is one of the most famous examples of mimetic or novelty architecture, in which buildings are designed to mimic or represent objects associated with their function

Basket it was designed to replicate the company’s best selling product, the Medium Market Basket, but 160 times larger. in ohio USA

 

basket building

04 HABITAT 67

Habitat 67 is an experimental modular housing complex in Montreal, Canada, designed by architect Moshe Safdie as a vision for the future of urban living. The building was created as the showpiece for Expo 67, one of the largest world fairs which was held in Montreal in 1967.

Habitat 67 from montreal

05 THE LOTUS TEMPLE 

The Lotus Temple  in New Delhi consisting of 27 structures resembling petals of the lotus flower that open onto a central hall around 40m high. It has nine sides, nine doors, and can accommodate 2,500 people. It’s surface is made of white marble from Mount Pentelicus in Greece,

lotus temple in New Delhi India

Since its completion in 1986 it has become one of the most visited buildings in the world, attracting over 100 million people.


06 CUBE HOUSES 

Cube house in Rotterdam Netherlands

Cube house is a  series of unusual house design located in Rotterdam, Netherlands. They were conceived and constructed in the 1970s, as a response to the request from town planners for housing to be built on top of a bridge.  Arch. Blom had already built similar houses in the town of Helmand and so chose to repeat the design in Rotterdam.


07 THE LEANING TOWER OF PISA 

The leaning tower of pisa

Foundation failure or rather differential settlement of the tower of Pisa makes it an outstanding building , A tower that was constructed in three centuries – 300 Years. Most famous for its tilt, the tower began to lean during construction after soft ground on one side was unable to properly support the structure’s weight.


08 CAPITAL GATE

One of the tallest buildings in the city, the Capital Gate has been certified by the Guinness Book of World Records as the “world’s furthest leaning man-made tower.” The building leans 18 degrees, four times more than the Leaning Tower of Pisa.

Capital gate in Abu Dhabi -UAE

09 TURNING TORSO

Designed by Santiago Calatrava, the Turning Torso is the tallest residential building in all of Sweden. From the bottom to the top, the building twists a full 90 degrees.

turning torso

10 FALLING WATER 

Falling water was designed and built in 1930s

Falling water is quite possibly the most famous private residence in the world. But why? Well, the unique design makes it look like the house stretches out over a 30ft waterfall, with no solid ground beneath it.


There are a thousand amazing buildings in the world, Here is More of this Most famous buildings in the world [ part 2]

Thank you ladies and gents .

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Types of foundation

Foundations provide support for structures, transferring their load to layers of soil or rock that have sufficient bearing capacity and suitable settlement characteristics.

Foundations are classified into two major categories

  1. shallow foundations
  2. Deep foundations

The words shallow and deep refer to the depth of soil in which the foundation is made. Shallow foundations can be made in depths of as little as 3ft (1m), while deep foundations can be made at depths of 60 – 200ft (20 – 65m).

SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS 

Shallow foundations are also called spread footings or open footings. The ‘open’ refers to the fact that the foundations are made by first excavating all the earth till the bottom of the footing, and then constructing the footing. During the early stages of work, the entire footing is visible to the eye, and is therefore called an open foundation. The idea is that each footing takes the concentrated load of the column and spreads it out over a large area, so that the actual weight on the soil does not exceed the safe bearing capacity of the soil.

Shallows foundations are used when surface soils are sufficiently strong and stiff to support the imposed loads; they are generally unsuitable in weak or highly compressible soils, such as poorly-compacted backfill.

types of shallow foundations 

  • Strip foundations
  • Pad foundations
  • Raft foundations

 

 

pad foundations 

 Pad foundations are also known as individual footings, isolated footings  or single footings.Pad foundations are used to support an individual point load such as a structural column, a group of columns or a framed structure. They may be circular, square or reactangular. They usually consist of a block or slab of uniform thickness, but they may be stepped or haunched if they are required to spread the load from a heavy column. Pad foundations are usually shallow, but deep pad foundations can also be used depending on the ground conditions.The load  from the columns is then transmitted by the pad to the bearing layer of soil or rock below.

Individual footings awaiting concreting of the footing column

 

 

strip foundations 

Strip foundations are used to support a line of loads, either due to a load-bearing wall, or if a line of columns and act as a long strip that supports the weight of an entire wall. These are used where the building loads are carried by entire walls rather than isolated columns, such as in older buildings made of masonry.

strip foundation

 

Raft foundation

Raft Foundations, also called Mat Foundations, are most often used when basements are to be constructed. In a raft, the entire basement floor slab acts as the foundation; the weight of the building is spread evenly over the entire footprint of the building. Raft foundation is used when soil bearing capacity is low.

A raft foundation normally consists of a concrete slab which extends over the entire loaded area. It may be stiffened by ribs or beams incorporated into the foundation.

Raft foundations have the advantage of reducing differential settlements as the concrete slab resists differential movements between loading positions. They are often needed on soft or loose soils with low bearing capacity as they can spread the loads over a larger area.

concrete slab of a raft foundation

 

DEEP FOUNDATIONS

PILE FOUNDATIONS -A pile is basically a long cylinder of a strong material such as concrete that is pushed into the ground so that structures can be supported on top of it.

Pile foundations are used in the following situations:

  • When there is a layer of weak soil at the surface. This layer cannot support the weight of the building, so the loads of the building have to bypass this layer and be transferred to the layer of stronger soil or rock that is below the weak layer.
  • When a building has very heavy, concentrated loads, such as in a high rise structure.

Pile foundations are capable of taking higher loads than spread footings.

There are two types of pile foundations, each of which works in its own way.

  • End bearing piles
  • Friction piles

In end bearing piles, the bottom end of the pile rests on a layer of especially strong soil or rock. The load of the building is transferred through the pile onto the strong layer. In a sense, this pile acts like a column. The key principle is that the bottom end rests on the surface which is the intersection of a weak and strong layer. The load therefore bypasses the weak layer and is safely transferred to the strong layer.

Friction piles work on a different principle. The pile transfers the load of the building to the soil across the full height of the pile, by friction. In other words, the entire surface of the pile, which is cylindrical in shape, works to transfer the forces to the soil.

To visualise how this works, imagine you are pushing a solid metal rod of say 4mm diameter into a tub of frozen ice cream. Once you have pushed it in, it is strong enough to support some load. The greater the embedment depth in the ice cream, the more load it can support. This is very similar to how a friction pile works. In a friction pile, the amount of load a pile can support is directly proportionate to its length.

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The mind blowing Kiefer technic showroom

Never underestimate the importance of a first impression ! They say it is the inside that matters but according to me that is just a misconception.Exteriors are the very first thing neighbors, visitors and prospective buyers see,a commercial building or your home, the same applies.

We’ve come across some incredible building facades in our time, but none quite as showstopping as this one. Introducing Keifer technic showroom  Located in Bad Gleichenberg Austria.

The stainless steel facade are all movable, creating a dynamic and changeable facade that will quickly change anyone’s opinion of solar shading from boring to va va voom. Press play on the video to see some of the facade’s artful configurations. If you wont find this mind blowing I don’t know what will.

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Buying or building a house ?

the most expensive house in the US

The process of building a new home can be so complicated because there are so many details that have to be put together. For instance, one has to look for cash for the land, hire an architect to draw up the designs, get a contractor, buy building materials  and then supervise the entire project. This is exactly what a real estate agent will tell you before they capitalize your house hunting desperation to their advantage.

However buying a house comes with its advantages, I will list a few for you

  • The advantages to buying a house are convenience and cost.
  • Existing houses may come in a desired location, and they’ll have mature landscaping probably in a gated community.

 

On the flip-side buying a house has has a disadvantage.

  • The floor plan may not be perfect, or the kitchen could be too small so Revamping or rather renovations may  come in handy and they come at a cost. ( not flexible for changes in design )
  • Chances of getting swindled out of your money are high.
  • There is a possibility that there might be significant  structural issues that went un-noticed on time of inspection.
  • Paying loans for almost 15-20 years can be stressing. For instance , If one takes a Sh5,000,000 loan to buy or build the house at today’s prevailing variable interest rates of about 14 % annum, they will be repaying about Sh78,000 per month, for the next twenty years.

Building a new home does not offer the same convenience as buying an existing house, but the end result might be to your advantage, a house tailored to your needs and taste.

The advantages include,

  1. Changes of the building structure can be changed as the building project is ongoing.
  2. No middle men are involved as opposed to buying a house which needs lawyers and real estate agents
  3. With modern technology and innovation you can build  a house in just 10 – 14 days. (We will discuss this later)
  4. The big advantage: You are much more likely to get exactly what you want. For many, this factor alone is enough to choose building over buying.
  5. Building your own house you will  have an upper hand on the budget, and how much money you would be happy to spend on construction materials. (you can account for the exact value of the house ) 

     

    The major drawbacks in building a house is the time consumed. Time is an extra cost that people ignore at times. That being the first setback here are the rest

  • When building one residential property  you lose out on the benefit of economies of scale that large property development  companies may achieve.
  • The hassle of acquiring land may be tiring.
  • Un necessary costs might be met for example the contractors foreman might be siphoning off cement from the store.
  • If anything  goes wrong while your house is being built, such as a builder falling off of a ladder or a painter tripping down the stairs. Because you own the land, you could be held liable for any injury, disability or death that occurs on your property
  • The credibility of the contractor – The contractors may not deliver to your expectations

In conclusion, before you buy or build the house ,The trick is to do what is right for you, depending your current financial situation, the status of your family and where you live. Is building better than buying or vice-versa? There is no answer to that, there only answer is that different solutions work for different individuals.

 

Drop us a comment of your opinion…

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types of bridges- suspension bridges

The five bridge types are arch, beam, cable-stayed, suspension, and truss. Other variations include cantilever and moveable bridges.

Let us focus on suspension bridges, A suspension bridge is a type of bridge in which the deck (the load-bearing portion) is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders.The length of main span is the most common method of comparing the sizes of suspension bridges, often correlating with the height of the towers and the engineering complexity involved in designing and constructing the bridge.

A suspension bridge does just what the name implies. The deck, or roadway, is suspended by large cables that are secured at each end and pass over the tops of high towers.The basic parts of a typical suspension bridge fall into two categories, “superstructure” and “substructure.

The substructure is composed of  the piers (caissons, or tower foundations) in the middle of the span that support the towers, and the anchorages (anchors) for the cables at each end of the bridge.

The superstructure is  composed of a deck (or roadway, or girder), two towers, and the main suspension cables.Large anchorages at both ends of the bridge act as counter weights that hold the ends of the main cables. The anchorages are normally either a mass of concrete or solid rock. In the anchorage, the cables splay into separate strands to distribute the tension load evenly and safely.

The main cables stretch from one anchor over the tops of the tower, At the top of the towers each cable passes over a cable saddle. At the cable saddle the cable transfers the load from the cables to the tower. The cables are later attached to the opposite anchorage. The cables are compacted strands of parallel wires carried back and forth across the water. At the anchorage, each cable strand wraps around a strand shoe. Each strand shoe connects to an eye-bar. The eye-bars are firmly cemented in the anchorage.

The main cables are attached to the deck by suspender cables. These are sometimes also called “suspender ropes” and “hanger cables.

ADVANTAGES OF SUSPENSION BRIDGES OVER OTHER BRIDGES 

  • Longer main spans are achievable than with any other type of bridge
  • Less material may be required than other bridge types, even at spans they can achieve, leading to a reduced construction cost
  • Except for installation of the initial temporary cables, little or no access from below is required during construction, for example allowing a waterway to remain open while the bridge is built above
  • May be better able to withstand earthquake movements than heavier and more rigid bridges
  • Bridge decks can have deck sections replaced in order to widen traffic lanes for larger vehicles or add additions width for separated cycling/pedestrian paths.

 

DISADVANTAGES OF SUSPENSION BRIDGES 

  • Considerable stiffness or aerodynamic profiling may be required to prevent the bridge deck vibrating under high winds
  • The relatively low deck stiffness compared to other (non-suspension) types of bridges makes it more difficult to carry heavy rail traffic where high concentrated live loads occur
  • Some access below may be required during construction, to lift the initial cables or to lift deck units. This access can often be avoided in cable-stayed bridge construction

 

FORCES

Three kinds of forces operate on any bridge: the dead load, the live load, and the dynamic load. Dead load refers to the weight of the bridge itself. Like any other structure, a bridge has a tendency to collapse simply because of the gravitational forces acting on the materials of which the bridge is made. Live load refers to traffic that moves across the bridge as well as normal environmental factors such as changes in temperature, precipitation, and winds. Dynamic load refers to environmental factors that go beyond normal weather conditions, factors such as sudden gusts of wind and earthquakes. All three factors must be taken into consideration when building a bridge.

 

EXAMPLES SUSPENSION BRIDGES 

The Milllau viaduct, a cable-stayed bridge that spans the Tarn River Valley in southern France, is a bridge that is both tall (in structural height) and high (in deck height). The viaduct’s bridge deck soars 270 m (890 ft) above the valley floor, placing the bridge among the twenty highest bridges in the world.

The longest suspension bridge in the world located in japan

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