Concrete Framed Structures

CONCRETE FRAMED STRUCTURES


concrete frame is a common form of structure, comprising a network of columns and connecting beams that form the structural ‘skeleton’ of a building. This grid of beams and columns is typically constructed on a concrete foundation and is used to support the building’s floors, roof, walls, cladding and so on.

Beams are the horizontal load-bearing members of the frame. They are classified as either:

Main beams: Transmitting floor and secondary beam loads to the columns; or
Secondary beams: Transmitting floor loads to the main beams.

Columns are the vertical members of the frame and are the building’s primary load-bearing element. They transmit the beam loads down to the foundations. 

LOADS


Structural analysis is a very important part of a design of buildings and other built assets such as bridges and tunnels, as structural loads can cause stress, deformation and displacement that may result in structural problems or even failure.

The building regulations require that structures must be designed and built to be able to withstand all load types that they are likely to face during their life-cycle.

These loads include:

DEAD LOADS 

The downwards forces on the building coming from the weight of the building itself, including the structural elements, walls, facades, and the like.

They are also known as permanent or static loads, they are  predominantly associated with the weight of the structure itself

LIVE LOADS

The downward force on the building coming from the expected weight of the occupants and their possessions, including furniture

DYNAMIC LOADS

these occur commonly in bridges and similar infrastructure and are the loads created by traffic, including braking and accelerating loads.

ENVIRONMENTAL LOADS

Environmental loads may act on a structure as a result of topographic and weather conditions.

  • Wind loads– This is a very important design factor, especially for tall buildings, or buildings with a large surface area

    Burj Khalifa the tallest building on the planet is designed in such a way that it withstands wind loads 
ALSO READ : CHINESE GHOST TOWN
The roof pitch is designed to withstand snow loads

Snow loads – The shape of a roof is a particularly important factor in the magnitude of the snow load. Snow falling on a flat roof is likely to accumulate, whereas snow is more likely to fall of a steeper the roof pitch

  •  Thermal loads – All materials expand or contract with temperature change and this can exert significant loadson a structure. Expansion joints can be provided at points on long sections of structures such as walls and floors so that elements of the structure are physically separated and can expand without causing structural damage.

 

CLADDING 


Cladding – components that are attached to the concrete frame of a building to form non-structural, external surface. This is as opposed to buildings in which the external surfaces are formed by structural elements, such as masonry walls, or applied surfaces such as render. 

Glass cladding

 

ALSO READ : SMART HOMES

Whilst cladding is generally attached to the structure of the building, it typically does not contribute to its stability. However, cladding does play a structural role, transferring wind loads, impact loads, snow loads and its own self-weight back to the structural framework.

Since concrete has little tensile strength, it generally needs to be reinforced. Rebar, also known as reinforcement steel (or reinforcing steel), is a steel bar or mesh of steel wires used to strengthen and hold the concrete in tension. To improve the quality of the bond with the concrete, the surface of the rebar is often patterned.

Concrete frames can be precast (manufactured off-site) or cast on site.

PRECAST CONCRETE 


Precast concrete is a form of concrete that is prepared, cast and cured off-site, usually in a controlled factory environment, using reusable moulds. Precast concrete elements can be joined to other elements to form a complete structure. It is typically used for structural components such as; wall panels, beams, columns, floors, staircases, pipes, tunnels, and so on.

Precast concrete frames are typically used for single-storey and low-rise structures. The concrete members transported to the site where a crane then lifts and places them into position to construct the frameImage result for precast concrete

FORMWORK


Concrete members can be formed on site with the use of formwork. This is a temporary mould into which concrete is poured. Traditional formwork is fabricated using timber, but it can also be constructed from steel, glass fibre reinforced plastics and other materials. Shuttering is perhaps the most popular type of formwork and is normally constructed on site using timber and plywood.

SLIP FORMWORK 

Slip form is a method of construction in which concrete is poured into the top of a continuously moving formwork. As the concrete is poured, the formwork is raised vertically at a speed which allows the concrete to harden before it is free from the formwork at the bottom.. 

Slip form is most economical for structures over 7 storeys high such as bridges and towers, as it is the fastest method of construction for vertical reinforced concrete structures, but it can also be used for horizontal structures such as roadways.

 

click on the banner above and win big with construction web

 

 

 

Please share this

21st BUILD EXPO, NAIROBI KENYA

For the past 21 years, something better has been gracing our construction industry and 2018 is no exception, On 3rd through 5th May, The annual building and construction expo is happening at the Kenyatta international conference centre.

Buildexpo is the most prominent building and construction trade exhibition in Kenya and one of the largest fairs in Africa. Africa, the market of the millennium has been gaining immense attention from global manufacturers and exporters seeking tie-ups with importers in Africa for building products.The Kenya construction trade fair in 2018 featured exhibitors from over 40 countries.

Exhibitions enable you to meet the people that matter to your business in one place, including existing customers, new prospects, suppliers, advisers, investors and key figures in the industry. You can use networking to forge productive relationships with key people. Over time, these contacts can become powerful advocates that support and promote your business, That is enough reason for you not to miss this expo

Few of the brands exhibiting are Apex steel from Kenya,  Carvatorta group from France, Regal equipment limited, Tononoka Group among other prime exhibitors.

See you then

 

Please share this

Container Housing

In the 21st Century, shipping containers are being used more frequently for architecture than they are for actual shipping, It is just an opinion. There are several reasons why shipping container housing has grown in popularity. The houses are 

1.Cost-effective 

The general consensus is that shipping container homes are cheaper to build than conventional housing. The budget really depends on the situation, but shipping containers reduce costs dramatically in areas where it’s difficult to erect regular housing, such as sloping blocks of land.

2. Eco-friendly

One of the biggest pros of building a shipping container home, Whilst you could argue that melting down the shipping container and recasting the steel into something else is more environmentally friendly, you would be wrong. Recasting steel requires an incredible amount of energy and it isn’t financially viable- this is why there are so many abandoned shipping containers in the world.

3. Speedy to build

Shipping container homes can be built incredibly fast, They can be built offsite then shipped to your Land. 

The best example of this is a college in Holland wanted an additional accommodation for incoming students, So they decided to build a block of shipping container homes out of 250 containers. The shipping containers were modified in China and then shipped to Amsterdam. In total around 5 shipping containers were stacked each day. This means that in less than 12 weeks they had successfully built 250 shipping container homes!

The reason for this is that when you purchase a shipping container, you already have the walls, floor and ceiling for your home; you just need to apply insulation and decorate them!

But some architects say the trendy metal boxes have major flaws and are not worth the hype

 

Please share this

House Review

Strategic placement of any building becomes paramount when it comes to a large site. This was the case with the 2.5-acre site for a new farmhouse in Chhattarpur, New Delhi, where the land was exceptionally narrow and deep.

The narrowness of this west facing plot was challenging because placing the built mass either in front or at back resulted in enormous, wasteful lawns at the other ends. Besides, the presence of an adjoining old three storey residential building to the north with an array of servant rooms situated on its terrace looking into our site, made it imperative to place our building parallel to this adjoining block such that there is no visibility of this mammoth structure from the south courtyard of our building. 

The main mass of the building was designed along the length to counter the linearity of the plot and was positioned towards the north side creating a south facing court and avoiding ‘over-looking’ issues from the neighbours. The south court was flanked with the formal living and bar to the west with the gymnasium/ den area to the southeast corner. This resulted in an intimate court adjoining the informal lounge of the house. The initial planning provided for a pool positioned in the court next to the gym block but was later shifted to the northeast of the building on client’s behest.

The main building being linear along the north and the formal area located in the south-west spanning the width of the plot resulted in an ‘L’ shaped typology. What it helped do was to segregate the formal front lawns with the more intimate central courtyard. Placing the living room between these open zones gave the user a benefit of clubbing these areas for larger gathering.

The architectural vocabulary of the building was actually generated with the response to its orientation. The front of the house facing west is either expanse of solid white planes or timber louvres provided in front of openings with glass.

The entrance of the house is flanked with a granite-clad stone wall that directs the movement towards the main door. An elegant steel and wood canopy projects out over the entry. The bar, located at the other end from the entrance, was cladded with same stone and it wrapped around onto the side facing the internal courtyard.

The master bedroom sat on top of the bar and precariously cantilevered out towards the court. High roof of the master bedroom balcony provided an unobtrusive view of the courtyard and poolside area with the rear lawn. An open verandah was designed outside formal living with louvers on the roof protecting the length of the glass from direct evening sun.  

Compositionally, there is a subtle balance between the solid and void that has been created to the front of the house. Towards the south court, the glazing has been maximized on the ground floor with adequate shade being provided by the building mass projecting out on the first floor. 

The staircase was custom-designed and fabricated out of steel and timber and is placed along a full height transparent wall in the entrance atrium which faces north. This glass and aluminum skin turns horizontal at the top and becomes part of the roof.

 

Source : Home Adore

Please share this

TILE INSTALLATION GUIDE

A ceramic tile will outperform and outlast nearly any other floor covering product created for the same application.

Here at constructionweb, I lead you to the choice of tiles to layout and grouting. 

When it comes the selection of tiles, A lot comes into play this includes; 

SELECTION OF TILES 

  • Material –  Tile materials are porcelain, ceramic, brick, marble, laminate, slate, mosaic and vinyl. All these materials are available in many colours and price ranges.
  • Installation – Rooms such as the living room and kitchen require tough tiles that will last for long. Kids bedroom require tiles that will stand up to abrasion and heavy use as well. 
  •  Durability – While some tiles are resistant to wear and tear, some other options such as granite and marble may be prone to cracks and staining. Before tile selection, carefully consider the foot traffic in the intended area of installation
  • Resistance to water– In areas of installation such as the kitchen and bathroom floors, some of the better options for tiles are materials such as marble, granite, mosaic or ceramic. However, you must also remember that the smooth finish on marble and granite can increase the chances slipping. Slip resistant tiles are the best option. 

Hardwood and laminate are not good choices for the kitchen or bathroom 

Picture: Bathroom designs the USA
  • Resistance to chemicals –  Slates are hardy  tiles and the best choice for areas with chemical handling 
  • Maintenance– The ease of cleaning or maintenance should be put into consideration, Ceramic tile is long-lasting and relatively easy to maintain. Glazed ceramic tile is generally resistant to stains, water, fire and dirt, and can be cleaned up with a damp mop or sponge and common household cleaners.  Unglazed porcelain tile is popular for its natural look and chameleon properties, it is slightly more difficult to maintain and requires extra sweeping and damp mopping to prevent staining.
  • Pricing – Well, the price should be in your budget 
  • Availability – In case of tile breakage long after installation,  A similar tile should be readily available at the local depots 

GROUT 

Grout simply is a sealant used to lock the tiles tight, keeping water out and bonding the tiles together preventing the edges from chipping and cracking. Grout helps in controlling the functionality and durability of tiles and plays a major role in the day-to-day maintenance and the overall longevity of your tiles.

There are three methods when it comes to choosing the most suitable grout :

  • Matching grout
    Matching the grout colour to the tile colour makes the grout lines less noticeable and therefore the tile itself is accented. This is the best option if you have over-the-top beautiful tiles with a basic layout. 
  • Contrasting grout
    Picture: Homesteady

    A conflicting grout colour and tile colour will emphasize both the design and layout of the tiles, rather than the tile itself. Grout is a whole other design decision, therefore, gives it the consideration it deserves.

  • Neutral grout
    A neutral grout produces an appearance somewhere in between matching and contrast. Guess who lacked a clear explanation of this 

    EXTRA TILE TIPS

  • When dealing with mismatched tiling, don't vary the size, shape or colour palette and vice versa — always have a single consistent feature.
  • Though tile is durable and long-lasting, you may need to replace broken floor tiles occasionally. If you didn't save spares from the initial installation, there are a few options.

Thank you for reading, Do have a great day ahead

 

Please share this

Concrete screeding machine

This Tuesday focus on Laser technology

Read 

Top 5 construction Trends
Futuristic Plastic roads

In recent years, the construction industry has been adopting laser technology for various purposes of leveling,  and other traditional manual processes.

The use of laser technology in the construction industry is becoming more and more popular, especially among those contractors working on larger-scale commercial projects. The trend towards laser use is strengthened by the fact that it expedites traditional manual processes, such as leveling, plumbing, machine control, excavation work, landscaping, swimming pool construction, measuring elevation, measuring distance, alignment, site-prep grading, construction stakeout concrete leveling, home building, and many various construction job site tasks. 

ALSO, READ 

technology in the construction industry
Intercontinental China 

Many construction companies are finding the need for laser tools just to stay competitive in the industry. 

Below is a laser screeding machine 

Please share this

What is Green Building ?

Welcome to another blog post from Construction web, catch us each and every day of 2018, Keeping you inspired at the same time updated in the construction world.

Each Friday, Spotlight on green building and reviews. But on this first Friday lets talk green building 

Green building refers to the structure and the application of processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building’s life-cycle, from conception through completion to demolition.

This requires close cooperation of the contractor, the architects, the engineers, and the client at all project stages. 

Most countries have a set of rating systems for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green buildings or rather an authoritative body that governs and checks compliance of local buildings.

The common objective of green buildings is to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by:

      • Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources
      • Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity 
      • Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation  
        SMART FLOWER SOLAR PANELS
SMART HOUSES
THE STATE OF THE REAL ESTATES

Examples of green technology subject areas:

Energy
Perhaps the most urgent issue for green technology, this includes the development of alternative fuels, new means of generating energy and energy efficiency.

Green building
Green building encompasses everything from the choice of building materials to where a building is located.

Environmentally preferred purchasing
 Innovation involves the search for products whose contents and methods of production have the smallest possible impact on the environment and mandates that these be the preferred products for government purchasing.

Green chemistry
The invention, design application of chemical products and processes to reduce or to eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.

Green nanotechnology
Nanotechnology involves the manipulation of materials at the scale of the nanometer, one billionth of a meter. Some scientists believe that mastery of this subject is forthcoming that will transform the way that everything in the world is manufactured. “Green nanotechnology” is the application of green chemistry and green engineering principles to this field.

Well, that’s it for today Make sure to pass by our Instagram page for amazing giveaways 

Click on the banner to follow us
Please share this

Top 5 Construction Trends in 2018.

The year, 2018, I made a resolution, a resolution to keep construction web readers always updated and informed in the construction world.

You might as well bookmark this site,

Did someone ask why?

Well, brace yourself for 365 blog posts. 

Check out my new year resolution here 


Construction Web In 2018


So without much ado let’s get down to business, wait, I mean construction trends,

In 1900, craftsmen with varying levels of skill manufactured carts one at a time. Even the best of these carts provided little more than basic transportation. Yet in at the same time, master masons and builders created incredible stone houses using principles of design and construction that were breathtaking for the time. 

Today the technologies of both manufacturing and construction have changed, but not nearly to the same degree.

For many reasons, that I won’t state, the basic construction process of building stick by stick, piece by piece, has remained unchanged since the Middle Ages whereas in Manufacturing miracles are happening.

It is now the 21st century that we are seeing technological breakthroughs which set new waves in productivity.

So I decided to put together an article that outlines the emerging trends to look out for in the year 2018! 


IN SUMMARY

  1. Building Information Modelling
  2. Virtual  and Augmented realities 
  3. Modular and prefab houses 
  4. Green construction 
  5. Project management software

 

1 Building Information Model (BIM)

Building Information Modelling is a process that gives construction professionals the insight and tools to efficiently plan, design, construct, operate and maintain diverse physical infrastructures, such as water, refuse, electricity, gas, communication utilities, roads, bridges, ports, tunnels, etc.

 Benefits to the construction industry already have been significant in several respects, thanks to BIM features like the collaboration features, conflict resolution features. The features reduce interferences, which are instances where the design of separate systems, such as electrical conduit and high-voltage alternating current ducting, compete for the same physical space. 

So it’s clear that there is going to be less resistance with adapting BIM in construction projects. In fact, with favourable responses on previous years, we might see more advancements with BIM in 2018.

 

EDITORS PICK 

KIEFER TECHNIC SHOWROOM

2 Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality 

While the construction industry has been notoriously slow to jump into the technology revolution, soon companies will have no choice.  Another big thing to look out for is an increase in virtual and augmented reality use. This type of technology is changing the entire industry, Its biggest benefit is the ability to provide virtual walkthroughs in order to sell property and  

Preparing workers to operate the necessary machinery through simulation is a very effective method. VR enables easy communication and collaboration on site. 

.3 Green Construction 

Environmental sustainability has become a hot topic of discussion in the last few years and is expected to raise more dust. In 2018, a focus on ecological benefits will remain a trend throughout the industry as well as an increased emphasis on the financial benefits. Expect to see increasingly green business models! 

ALSO, READ 

SMART FLOWER SOLAR PANELS 

SMART HOUSES

4.modular and prefabrication construction projects

In 2017, modular and prefabrication construction has become an increasingly popular trend due to its cost-effectiveness and energy efficiency. Modular and prefabrication construction will continue to be an attractive option in 2018. Expect to see a lot more pop-ups and permanent modular buildings, as well as prefab houses this year!

However, the basic building blocks of construction—steel and concrete—are expected to remain relatively unchanged. Specific qualities of these materials will be improved, but no major substitute material is on the horizon. 

EDITORS PICK 

MOVABLE MINIMALIST HOUSE

 5 Project Management Softwares

In job sites of the past, the first tools unpacked were the shovels. Today, the first things out of the box are often computers. Terminals and graphics workstation, These computers provide communications links with the engineering office, the client, and relevant vendors or fabricators.

The software also provides the construction industry with three fundamental advantages: Efficiency, Transparency and Accountability. The latest software provides real-time communication, project overview, trackability and integrations with other software, therefore, a  system of controls optimize the design, procurement, and construction process. 

Most importantly, Expect Construction web 2.0

sharing is caring ⇓

Please share this

Basic requirements of a building

Hi Construction savvy,  The year 2017 is and will never come back to your life, You had a rough one? hang on in there 2018 will be interesting to you.  Never give up on your dreams.

 Here at construction web, we have a lot for you, of course, it has to do with building and construction, interior design and generally home decor. 

We have themed blog posts each day of 2018. 

We are coming up with video contents or rather vlogs later into the year 

Weekly Ebooks on home decor 

We ask for your support throughout the year,

We believe you will benefit our daily content and win monthly giveaways


⇐CLICK ON THE BANNER AND WIN 


Basic requirements of a building 

1. Strength and Stability: Building should be capable of transferring the expected loads in its life period safely to the ground. Design of various structural components like slabs, beams, walls, columns footings should ensure safety. None of the structural components should buckle, overturn and collapse.

2. Dimensional Stability: Excessive deformation of structural components give a sense of instability and result into a crack in walls, flooring etc. All structural components should be so designed that deflections do not exceed the permissible values specified in the codes.

3. Resistance to Dampness: Dampness in a building is a great nuisance and it may reduce the life of the building. Great care should be taken in planning and in the construction of the building to avoid dampness.

4. Resistance to Fire: Regarding achieving resistance to fire, the basic requirements laid down in the codes are:
(a) the structure should not ignite easily.
(b) building orientation should be such that spread of fire is slow.
(c) In case of fire, there should be means of easy access to vacate building quickly.

5. Heat Insulation: A building should be so oriented and designed that it insulates interior from heat.

6. Sound Insulation: Buildings should be planned against outdoor and indoor noises.

7. Protection from Termite: Buildings should be protected from termites.

8. Durability: Each and every component of the building should be durable.

9. Security against Burglary: This is the basic need the owner of the building expects.

10. Lighting and Ventilation: For healthy and happy living natural light and ventilation are required. Diffused light and good cross ventilation should be available inside the building.

11. Comforts and Conveniences: Various units in the building should be properly grouped and integrated keeping in mind the comfort and convenience of the user.

12. Economy: Economy without sacrificing comfort, convenience & durability is another basic requirement of the building.

SUBSCRIBE TO OUR YOUTUBE CHANNEL BELOW 

Please share this

Technology in the construction industry

I am glad you made it to  ConstructionWeb on Tuesday, November 28th, 2017. This is a special Tuesday for us and probably you who is reading this, We are introducing a new segment on the website. The segment dubbed Tech Tuesday will zero in on technology in the construction industry,  Tech applied from conception, implementation and finally to demolition. 

We will focus on tools reviews and giveaway some on our social media channels. 

In today’s technology-driven world, it should come as no surprise that many of the biggest 2017 construction trends revolve around new technologies that improve and enhance the building design and construction process. To stay ahead of the curve we will post blogs on technology every Tuesday or what we like to call Tech Tuesday. 

New technologies are constantly changing the construction landscape. Drones now make it possible to survey and map a site with ease and at a lower cost. Smartphones and tablets make on-the-go communication a breeze. Digital blueprint apps and other software make it possible to map out a project ahead of time like never before. 

This article is all about the most significant changes in construction by examining technological trends and how they affect the entire construction sector. These trends fall into four major areas:

construction-related design

construction equipment and methods

automation and expert systems

construction management.

Here are the most innovative technologies  transforming the construction industry

COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN 

Nobody can narrate the success story of CAD more than an architect who was in the industry before the software and after the software. Manual drafting of technical drawings has been replaced with the use of computer systems to create, modify, optimize and analyze designs.

The CAD system looks at possible issues that may arise, to help reduce errors, and can help to reduce errors, which means less time spend off-schedule and a reduced risk of going off-budget. 

More focus on CAD in the subsequent Tech Tuesday articles

CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 

The only surefire way to protect drivers from being hurt or killed in an accident is to remove them from the equation. Today, operators may be closer to changing their job title to ‘remote control pilot’ than you think.

Royal Truck & Equipment builds driverless trucks that are being used at highway construction sites in FloridaCat® Command can automate hauling, dozing and drillingVolvo Construction Equipment is experimenting with autonomous technology in its L120 wheel loader and A25F articulated hauler. 

Videos of such will be uploaded every Tuesday meanwhile check out The Fire Fighting Robots

AUTOMATION AND EXPERT SYSTEMS

Technologies such as laser range-finding and geodetic positioning can be used to pinpoint exact locations, to automate storage areas on the job site, and to set guide tracks for remotely operated vehicles. These technologies will gradually be integrated into a coherent system for the highly automated control of certain job site activities.

Automation in the construction sector is usually seen in terms of robotics, and the development and application of robotic systems in all industry sectors are relatively new.

CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT

Construction management software has changed a lot over the years, especially since the growth and development of the internet. New versions help not only to increase productivity, but also to track progress and organize the entire construction team. It can be used for billing and as a time clock as well. The process of planning, scheduling, and cost control is addressed through these interfaces. 

Well, that’s just the introductory session of our Tech Tuesday articles. For this and more similar articles be sure to check us out next Tuesday,

Other technologies, such as Building Information Management, prefabrication, big data and much more surprises to be featured in subsequent articles 

 

 

 

Please share this