Details on Steel framed structures

This period of July we zero in structures, from wooden framed structures to concrete framed structures pre-engineered buildings and load bearing structures so makes sure to come back for more 
Most steel assembly is done with a type of steel called mild steel. Mild steel is a material that is immensely secure.  Take a circular bar of steel 1 inch / 25mm in diameter. If you were to attach this bar securely to your ceiling you could hang from it 20,000 Kg (which is 20 tons), or any one of the following:

  • 2 and a half African Elephants
  • 1 and a half London City Routemaster Double-Decker Buses 
  • 18 Toyota Vitz  

We urge you to try this at home unless you are coupled.

This immense strength is of great benefit to buildings.  The other important feature of steel framing is its flexibility.  It can bend without cracking, which is another great advantage, as a steel building can flex when it is pushed to one side by say, wind, or an earthquake.  The third component of steel is its plasticity or ductility.  This means that when subjected to great force, it will not suddenly crack like glass, but slowly bend out of shape.  This property allows steel buildings to bend out of shape, or deform, thus giving warning to inhabitants to escape.  Failure in steel frames is not sudden – a steel structure rarely collapses.  Steel in most cases performs far better in an earthquake than most other materials because of these properties.

However, one important property of steel is that it quickly loses its strength in a fire. At 500 degrees Celsius (930 degrees F), mild steel can lose almost half its strength. This is what happened at the collapse of the World Trade Towers in 2001. Therefore, steel in buildings must be protected from fire or high temperature; this is usually done by wrapping it with boards or a spray-on material called fire protection.

 

 PRIME EXAMPLES STEEL FRAME STRUCTURES 

Steel construction is most often used in 

  • High rise buildings because of its strength, low weight, and speed of construction
  • Industrial buildings because of its ability to create large span spaces at low-cost
  • Warehouse buildings for the same reason
  • Residential buildings in a technique called light gauge steel construction
  • Temporary Structures as these are quick to set up and remove

TYPES OF STEEL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

There are several types of steel building construction. Steel construction is also called steel  fabrication.

Conventional Steel Fabrication is when teams of steel fabricators cut members of steel to the correct lengths and then weld them together to make the final structure. This can be done entirely at the construction site, which is labour-intensive, or partially in a workshop, to provide better working conditions and reduce time.

Bolted Steel Construction occurs when steel fabricators produce finished and painted steel components, which are then shipped to the site and simply bolted in place. This is the preferred method of steel construction, as the bulk of the fabrication can be done in workshops, with the right machinery, lighting, and work conditions. The size of the components is governed by the size of the truck or trailer they are shipped in, usually with a max length of 6m (20ft) for normal trucks or 12m (40ft) for long trailers. Since the only work to be done at the site is lifting the steel members into place (with cranes) and bolting, the work at the site is tremendously fast. Pre-engineered buildings are an example of bolted steel construction that is designed, fabricated, shipped and erected by one company to the owner.

Light Gauge Steel Construction is a type of construction that is common for residential and small buildings in North America and parts of Europe. This is similar to wood framed construction, except that light gauge steel members are used in place of wood two-by-fours. Light gauge steel is steel that is in the form of thin (1-3mm) sheets of steel that have been bent into shape to form C-sections or Z-sections.

WEIGHT OF STEEL FRAME STRUCTURES

Consider a single storey building measuring 5 x 8m (16 x 26ft). Let us first construct this in concrete, with four columns at the corners, beams spanning between the columns, and a 150mm (6″) thick concrete slab at the top. Such a structure would weigh about 800 kg/m2, or 32 Tons (32,000 kg) in total. If we build this of steel instead, with a sloping roof covered with corrugated metal sheeting with insulation, this would weigh only about 65 kg/m2. The steel framed building will weigh only 2.6 Tons (2,600 kg). So the concrete building is over 12 times heavier! This is for single storey structures – in multi-storey structures, the difference will be less, as the floors in multi-storey steel buildings are built of concrete slabs for the economy – but the difference is still significant. 

This low weight of steel frame buildings means that they have to be firmly bolted to the foundations to resist wind forces, else they could be blown away like deck umbrellas!

ADVANTAGES OF STEEL STRUCTURES

Steel structures have the following advantages:

  • They are super-quick to build at the site, as a lot of work can be prefaced at the factory.
  • They are flexible, which makes them very good at resisting dynamic (changing) forces such as wind or earthquake forces.
  • A wide range of ready-made structural sections are available, such as I, C, and angle sections
  • They can be made to take any kind of shape and clad with any type of material
  • A wide range of joining methods is available, such as bolting, welding, and riveting

DISADVANTAGES OF STEEL STRUCTURES

Steel structures have the following disadvantages:

  • They lose strength at high temperatures and are susceptible to fire.
  • They are prone to corrosion in humid or marine environments.
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TYPES OF COLUMNS

Hey, Thank you for making it back to Construction Web   Your number one site on building and construction.

Apparently, The featured image above the structural members is meant to be columns. I personally haven’t seen that type of column before. You probably have the same questions like I do but let us analyze this together.

What is the structural integrity of this types of a column?

Can the columns withstand horizontal forces and vertical forces like wind and floods?

Can the columns withstand all the structural failures?

  • The first is that the column might not be strong and tough enough to support the load, due to either its size, shape, or choice of material.
  • The second type of failure is from fatigue or corrosion, caused by instability in the structure’s geometry, design or material properties.
  • The third type of failure is from the use of defective materials. This type of failure is also unpredictable, since the material may have been improperly manufactured or damaged from prior use.
  • The fourth cause of failure is from lack of consideration of unexpected problems. This type of failure can be caused by events such as vandalism, sabotage, or natural disasters. For instance what if vandals hack the blocks which can be easily done because of the joints?

Also Read:  Why Buildings Collapse
      The State of the Real Estate

A column is a vertical structural member intended to transfer a compressive load. For example, a column might transfer loads from a ceiling, floor or roof slab or from a beam, to a floors or foundations.

Columns effective length should be greater than 3 times Its least lateral dimension.

Primarily, Columns carry  Axial Loads and therefore are designed for compression. Other loads from snow, wind or other horizontal forces can cause bending in the columns. Columns then need to be designed for Axial Load and Bending.

 

Columns can be classified into four types  

  1. Based on Shape
  2. Based on a type of reinforcement
  3. Based on type of loading
  4. Based on slenderness ratio

 

Based on shape   

Columns can be classified according to their cross-sectional shape. Common column shapes include:

  • Rectangular.
  • Square.
  • Circular.
  • Hexagonal
  • Octagonal.
  • Y-shaped column

    Standard gauge railway: Photo credits Nairobi News

In profile, they can be tapered, non-tapered, or ‘barrel’ shaped, their surface can be plain, fluted, twisted, paneled and so on.


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Based on the type of Reinforcement 


Reinforced concrete columns have an embedded steel mesh (known as reinforcement bars ) to provide reinforcement.

The design of reinforcement can be either spiral or tied.

  1. Spiral columns are cylindrical with a continuous helical bar wrapped around the column. This spiral provides support in the transverse direction.
  2. Tied columns have closed lateral ties spaced approximately uniformly across the column. The spacing of the ties is limited in that they must be close enough to prevent failure between them, and far enough apart that they do not interfere with the setting of the concrete.
  3. Composite Columns – When the longitudinal reinforcement is in the form of structural steel section or pipe with or without longitudinal bars, it is called as a composite column.

 



Based on type of loading

Here the columns are classified into three types

Axially loaded Column: –

When the line of action of the compressive force coincides with the center of gravity of the cross-section of the column, it is called axially loaded column.

Eccentrically loaded column (Uniaxial or Biaxial)

When the line of action of compressive force doesn’t coincide with the center of gravity of the cross-section of the column, it is called as the eccentrically loaded column.


Based On Slenderness Ratio 

The slenderness ratio is the effective length of a column in relation to the least radius of gyration of its cross-section. If this ratio is not sufficient then buckling can occur.

Column slenderness is used extensively for finding out the design load as well as in classifying various columns in short/intermediate/long.

Short Column:

If the ratio effective length of the column to the least lateral dimension is less than 12, the column is called as the short column. A short column fails by crushing (pure compression failure).

The length of the column is less than the critical buckling length. Mechanical failure would typically occur due to compression.

Long Column:

If the ratio effective length of the column to the least lateral dimension exceeds 12, it is called as long column. A long column fails by bending or buckling.

If Length of the column is greater than the critical buckling length. Mechanical failure would typically occur due to buckling.

INTERMEDIATE  COLUMN:
  • In between the long and short columns, and its behaviour is dominated by the strength limit of the material.

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WHY BUILDINGS COLLAPSE IN KENYA !

Greedy investors coupled up with the swelling population in urban towns give way to collapsing buildings.

I feel you are a bit confused, but here are my two cents on collapsing buildings in Kenya.

For the past few decades, Africans have been moving from rural areas into cities, seeking work and schooling so the continent’s urban population has skyrocketed. Nairobi is a prime example of that migration, with its population pushing upward and its boundaries pushing outward. Kisii, Nakuru, Kisumu, Mombasa and Eldoret depict the same global trend in high relief.

While such migration often mirrors economic advancement, it also presents socioeconomic and environmental challenges. Rapid urban growth strains existing infrastructure, as a result, the construction industry is greatly affected.

Investors pump in money in high-rise apartments to accommodate students and job seekers. This means developers are maximally using land as they seek to reap big from their investments.

Because of the high housing demand, contractors routinely flout building codes to either build more houses and earn quick cash or they quote so low in their Bill of quantities and end up building substandard houses.

So I thought we should zero in the main reasons why buildings are collapsing and how to address the issue.

The residential building that collapsed in Kware, Embakasi early this year, photo by Ouma wanzala

1. Weak Foundation 

The foundations of the building transfer the weight of the building to the ground, they are the footholds of buildings and therefore need to be strong enough to support the subsequent load. While ‘foundation’ is a general word, normally, every building has a number of individual foundations.  Most buildings have some kind of foundation structure directly below every major column, so as to transfer the column loads directly to the ground.

Adequate foundations are usually costly and depending on the strength of the soil and the expected load of the building, they can contribute up to half of the entire cost of the building. It is for this reason that contractors take shortcuts and build apartments on swampy areas.

Some developers, however, want to save money when building on weak grounds by cutting on concrete and reinforcements resulting in the collapse of buildings.

A six-storey building that collapsed in Huruma, Nairobi, on April 29 last year is a good example of this kind of negligence.

The building, which was put up next to a river, collapsed after a heavy downpour killing 51 occupants and injuring more than 100 people.

Although the building may have had a sound design and structure, the ground beneath it was incapable of carrying its load and it had to collapse.

It is evident that pre-construction surveys were not carried out, the soil mechanics was neglected!


2. Counterfeit Building Materials  

We all know Kenya is ranked among the largest markets for fake products in Africa, with the construction boom in Kenya it has created a huge market for building materials, and rogue traders are taking advantage of this demand to introduce fakes into the local market.

From non-certified steel to pipes and low-quality fittings, the market is now flooded with fake “cheap” products

Most of these materials are weak therefore unable to support a building.

While some contractors might be duped by counterfeiters with fake authentication certificates into buying substandard materials, some individuals use these goods knowingly to cut costs.

The products are mainly sourced from China, Dubai, Japan, Korea, Thailand and India. To be on the safe side insist on locally manufactured products.

By the way, KRA has unveiled a smart phone application which can be used to verify authentic products in the war against counterfeits. Advise your builders to embrace this technology to avoid being a victim of collapsed buildings.


3. Poor Structural Design 

There is an aspect of engineering known as Structural integrity and failure which deals with the ability of a structure to support a designed load without breaking and includes the study of past structural failures in order to prevent failures in future designs.

The structural integrity of a building component is the ability of the same component to carry the designed load without breaking or deforming excessively, whereas the structural failure is initiated when a building component loses its integrity.

A structural engineer can make errors in computation and fail to take into account the weight that a structure will be expected to withstand.

The engineer may also follow inaccurate theories and use inaccurate data and make wrong choices of materials during construction of a building. Such an engineer will be responsible for the future collapse of the building.

In a well-designed building,  a localized failure should not cause immediate or even progressive collapse of the entire structure.


4 Unprofessionalism 

Construction management might be challenging and a demanding. In order to successfully complete a project, from the perspective of a Client, the contractor will need the assistance of many construction professionals ( architects, surveyors, soil, electrical, mechanical, structural and civil engineers ) to help them realize their objective, particularly from the feasibility to completion of a project.

These construction professionals have different specialties, for example, an architect will generally manage the design and construction of the project, whereas the structural engineer will ensure that the project is structurally stable, and the quantity surveyor will generally look after the financial aspects of a project.

The services of such professionals come at a cost and in a bid to cut on costs, some developers prefer to hire uncertified jua kali artisans – most of whom are nothing but quacks – which has led to the rising building collapse cases.

Such unskilled labor lacks the technical know-how on building construction requirements such as the ideal standards of structural steel as well as the correct concrete mixing ratios and curing procedures for optimum strength in relation to the expected load of the complete building.

Although the cowboy developers initially think they are saving a lot of money, in the long run when such buildings collapse, it becomes a perfect example of being penny-wise and pound-foolish.


5 Greed for wealth 

In a bid to cash in on the ever-growing demand for housing in urban towns, rogue developers flout building code and regulations to hurriedly put up substandard residential apartments

Some are adding extra floors originally not planned for resulting in heavier load than was planned for in the foundation. This is especially common in the less affluent residential estates where the population is swelling.

The understaffed national construction authority cant inspect all the buildings that are rapidly mushrooming every day across the country, and before you know it

BREAKING NEWS ….A building has collapsed in town A “


6 Corruption 

The delivery of a construction project involves many professional disciplines and tradespeople and numerous contractual relationships that make control measures difficult to implement, The complex transaction chains make it easier for corrupt developers.

The Numerous approvals required from the government in the form of licenses and permits at various stages of the delivery cycle, each one provides an opportunity for bribery.

The government agencies mandated with inspection of buildings to ensure they are safe for human habitation are riddled with corruption and inefficiencies.

For a few thousand shillings, corrupt inspectors are willing to turn a blind eye on malpractices resulting in fatalities and financial loss.

Although there are many reasons as to why a building may collapse, most of the incidents in Kenya seem to be driven by greed for wealth and corruption. In fact, it would be accurate to cite the two as the main real reasons as to why why buildings collapse in Kenya. 


MORE STORIES BELOW

  • Concrete Framed Structures
  • Details on Steel framed structures
  • 21st BUILD EXPO, NAIROBI KENYA
  • Nairobi city and Co-working spaces
  • Top 5 Construction Trends in 2018.
  • Basic requirements of a building
  • Technology in the construction industry
  • DAMPNESS IN BUILDINGS
  • Quality of Sand
  • TYPES OF COLUMNS
  • Roofing Systems and solutions
  • Tips on exterior designing
  • Tips of A perfect kitchen
  • The state of the Real Estates
  • Floating city of Tahiti
  • Tower of the Arabs
  • TESTS ON QUALITY CEMENT
  • Most famous buildings in the world [ part 2]
  • Fire safety and protection systems
  • Most Famous Buildings [ Part 1]

 

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The state of the Real Estates

There has been an unending debate this year about mushrooming malls all over Kenya, Nairobi to be specific. Today, there are more than 15 malls under construction, Others are undergoing renovations in a struggle to attract footfall.

Currently, there are 57 malls and the number will increase to over 70 malls in 2018. In the recent past, Nairobi has seen malls such as Garden City, TRM, The Hub, and new ones are lined up. The new ones are Two Rivers and Riviera Malls on Limuru Road, Capital Centre, Greenspan, T-Mall and Kiambu Mall.  

The retail market in Kenya has experienced increased supply and is currently estimated to be in surplus. Also, the office market is adversely affected, a significant number of office buildings in key office nodes of Upper Hill and Westlands have very low occupancy rates.

Although land in Upper Hill area remained the most highly valued with an acre going for Kshs.521 million and Ruaka the most expensive satellite town at Kshs.68.3 million an acre, the sector experienced a marginal decline in prices as demand in some suburbs fell due to oversupply.

The demand for offices spaces is usually driven by the growth of the services sector. The major players in the services sector include Government, Financial institutions, Professionals firms and NGO’s. Kenya’s real estate market operates in a weird cycle, It starts and ends after every general election.

Over the last decade, Kenya has experienced a real estate boom with prices rising rapidly amid high demand from both long-term investors and speculators, a 1-3 bedroomed apartment skyrocketed from Kshs. 5 million to Ksh 13 million. Interestingly, most of the houses are not standalone units with own compounds but high-rise apartments.This means developers are maximally using land as they seek to reap big from their investments.

The Onset of the current condition in the industry dates back in 2006 when then President Mwai Kibaki commissioned the expansion major roads across Nairobi in an effort to ease traffic congestion in the city. Thika road for instance.

But news of a property doubling or tripling in price always attracts speculators. So, within no time people hurriedly pumped money into acres of land hoping to sell them at higher prices. By 2010, everyone in Nairobi was a real estate investor.

Infrastructure developments, specifical improvements on the road network around the city, have also helped in opening up satellite towns and raising the values of land and homes, which could diffuse the rapid price increments in Nairobi. The most recent case being syokimau, where the newly Nairobi Standard gauge railway terminus was launched. Investors are advertising their land “four hours to the beach”. The pricing is ridiculous as we speak 

Fast forward 2017  land and apartment prices have gone overboard, Affordable housing is long forgotten. Prices are rapidly rising across Kenya as more developers join the sector, it is in the capital that prices have increased sharply ensuring that houses remain out of reach of the average working Kenyan

An acre of land in Karen, which was selling at Sh3.5 million had by then topped Sh20 million and a similar piece of land in Runda had hit the Sh40 million markup from Sh4.5 million in 2005. Today an acre of land in Karen has risen to Sh 70 million and an acre in Runda is now selling at Sh 100 million.The pricing disconnect could be evidence that home prices are overly inflated, a situation made worse by the swelling land prices.

Lack of affordable housing has led overpopulation  in Slums. With about 2.5 million people living in 200 settlements in Nairobi, the slums contain 60 percent of the city’s population, anybody good at maths will tell you over 1.5 million people live in slums.

Slum houses are built with wood, tin, galvanized iron sheets, and latticed wood strips. With limited space, tenants often sleep on the floors. The large population and little space make the cramped feeling of the Kenyan slums unimaginable, but I won’t deviate anymore it is a story for another day, back to The state of the real estate, I think that  Kenyan property prices have exceeded their elastic limits and this can only result in one consequence; recession. An  Economic recession is oncoming.

Current property owners will certainly not realize full returns on their investments. Let me break it down how, The rapid increase in value and prices of property to levels that are unaffordable by the population results to lower demand for property, then prices declining tremendously. This is by far the most I can remember from my business education in high school.

The real estate bubble has bursted!

So what? I hear you ask.

People borrowed heavily at high interests from banks to buy homes. Most investors ditched other economic activities and invested in real estate which promised high returns. Oversupply and loans default eventually brought these investments tumbling down.When the property bubble bursts, it usually affects a country’s economy particularly banks, mortgage firms and insurance companies.

Companies are downsizing and closing down some branches, this coupled up with the capping interest rates by the government has forced banks to retrench some of its workers.

This condition of overplus office spaces,  malls and ridiculous pricing of apartments is not permanent, of course, there has to be a market price correction and a law to cushion the ever inflated prices.

Investors need to be advised to venture into other sectors like manufacturing and agriculture to diversify,   Build factories and not malls and lots of office space.

On a lighter note, how comes speculators haven’t pulled out of the real estate business like the quail busine

 

 

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Floating city of Tahiti

The idea may strike you absurd but imagine moving your house when your neighbour gets annoying, this is what will likely happen in a future upcoming city in the Pacific ocean.

The Pacific Ocean ? I also have questions just like you do  but get it right from us

The world’s first floating city is set to appear in the Pacific Ocean off the island of Tahiti.

The government of French Polynesia has signed a deal with Seasteading Institute to begin construction work in just two years.

It may seem like an illogical plan, by the group, SeaSteading Institute believes semi-independent cities would be the perfect place to try new modes of government and agricultural method. In an MOU signed on January 13, 2017,  The groundbreaking of the pilot project in Tahiti will take up.

The first city would be built on a network of 11 rectangular and five-sided platforms so the city could be rearranged according to its inhabitants’ needs like a floating jigsaw

Floating islands would feature aquaculture farms, health care, medical research facilities, and sustainable energy powerhouses.

It’s envisaged that between 250 and 300 people will call the first floating city home.

French Polynesia, a collection of 118 islands in the southern Pacific, is interested in the project as the area is at risk from rising sea levels.  and surrounding the city is a modular wave-breakers to prevent the city from waves and storms.

Here is a video to watch and share

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Futuristic Plastic Roads

Plastic roads are roads made either entirely of plastic or of composites of plastic with other materials. Plastic roads are different from standard roads in the respect that standard roads are made from asphalt concrete, which consists of mineral aggregates and asphalt. Currently, there are no records of regular roads made purely of plastic, although In India things are quite different .

The indian Government order in November 2015 has made it mandatory for all road developers in the country to use waste plastic, along with bituminous mixes, for road construction. This is to help overcome the growing problem of plastic waste disposal in India.Plastic composite roads, however, have existed and demonstrate characteristics superior to regular asphalt concrete roads; specifically, they show better wear resistance. The implementation of plastics in roads also opens a new option for recycling post consumer plastics.

Back in India, The plastic composite roads is not an ideal method, since the plastic is not exploited for all of its properties. So far, no large scale,  methodical approach has been employed to build roads entirely of plastics.

Imagine that constructing a road would take days instead of months. That roads would last three times as long. That maintenance and traffic disruption are things of the past. And that cable and piping problems as well as the urban water problem are solved overnight.

This may sound like a scenario in the distant future, but nothing could be further from the truth. An innovative concept proposed by a Dutch company, Volkerwessels, aims to create roads entirely of recycled plastic. Every component of the Plastic Road is being designed to make its application completely circular, with the goal of using recycled plastic as much as possible.

The Plastic Road concept consists of a prefabricated, modular and hollow road structure made from (recycled) plastic. The prefabricated production, the light weight and the modular design of the Plastic Road make construction and maintenance faster, simpler and more efficient compared to traditional road structures

The Plastic Road has a hollow space that can be used to (temporarily) store water, thus preventing flooding during extreme precipitation. The hollow space can also be used for the transit of cables and pipes, thus preventing excavation damages.

Plastic-bitumen composite roads have better wear resistance than standard asphalt concrete roads. They do not absorb water, have better flexibility which results in less rutting and less need for repair. Road surfaces remain smooth, are lower maintenance, and absorb sound better.

Volkerwessels in conjunction with total and KWS  are currently working hard on the business case and is investigating the best way to produce the Plastic Road. The development of a first prototype will start soon. Once the Plastic Road meets all the technical, environmental and safety requirements, a pilot installation will be built to perform practical tests.

The expected lifetime of the Plastic Road is two to three times as long as that of traditional road paving.

The expected construction time of a new road will be reduced by approximately 70%

The Plastic Road is four times as light as a traditional road structure

The Plastic Road is 100% circular and is made from recycled plastic as much as possible.

 

Next time we zero in on Permeable roads  Thank you for reading .

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PAVEMENT DEFECTS – POTHOLES !

A pothole is a structural failure in a road surface, caused by failure primarily in asphalt pavement due to the presence of water in the underlying soil structure and the presence of traffic passing over the affected area.

They are caused by the expansion and contraction of ground water after the water has entered into the ground under the pavement. When water freezes, it expands. This same effect happens when water gets into the ground under the pavement. If it has a chance to freeze, it will take up more space under the pavement, and the asphalt pavement will expand, bend, and crack, which weakens the material pavement. Then when ice melts, the pavement contracts and leaves gaps or voids in the subsoil under the pavement, where water can get in and be trapped. If the water freezes and thaws over and over, the pavement will weaken and continue cracking

Potholes may result from four main causes:

1. Insufficient pavement thickness to support traffic during freeze/thaw periods without localized failures
2. Insufficient drainage
3. Failures at utility trenches and castings (manhole and drain casings)
4. Pavement defects and cracks left unmaintained and unsealed so as to admit moisture and compromise the structural integrity of the pavement.

Prevention

To avoid pothole formation in existing pavements the following are the methods

1. Surveying of pavements for risk factors

2. Providing adequate drainage structures – Drainage structures, including ditching and sewers, are essential for removing water from pavements.

3. Preventative maintenance – maintaining pavement structural integrity with thickness and continuity to the mix of preventing water penetration and promoting water migration away from the roadway. Maintenance includes

 a ] Crack Treatments

Consist of placing specialized materials into prepared cracks to prevent the intrusion of water through the crack into the underlying pavement structure.

      • Slow pavement deterioration
      • Slow crack spalling
      • Reduce potholes

Crack Sealing


b] Fog Seals

A light application of a diluted slow-setting asphalt emulsion to the surface of an aged pavement surface.

      • Help prevent water intrusion
      • Slow pavement deterioration
      • Improves aggregate retention

Fog Seal


c] Chip Seals

A thin surface treatment that combines one or more layer(s) of asphalt with one or more layer(s) of fine aggregate.

      • Help prevent water intrusion
      • Fill and seal pavement distresses
      • Minimizes reflective cracking

Chip Seal


d ] Microsurfacing

A thin surface treatment that combines a layer of asphalt emulsion and finely crushed stone.

        • Help prevent water intrusion
        • Corrects minor rutting
        • Fast set and cure times 

    4. Utility cut management -a permitting process for utility cuts with specifications that avoid loss of structural continuity of pavements and flaws or failures that allow water penetration

  1. REPAIR

  2. Patching is the process of filling potholes or excavated areas in the asphalt pavement. Quick repair of potholes or other pavement disintegration helps control further deterioration and expensive repair of the pavement. Without timely patching, water can enter the subgrade and cause larger and more serious pavement failures
  3. Temporary patching is reserved for weather conditions that are not favorable to a more permanent solution and usually uses a cold mix asphalt patching compound placed in an expedient manner to temporarily restore pavement smoothness.
  4. Semi-permanent patching uses more care in reconstructing the perimeter of the failed area to blend with the surrounding pavement and usually employs a hot-mix asphalt fill above replacement of appropriate base materials.
  5. Materials for patching include hot mix asphalt, asphalt emulsion mixes, stockpile patching mixes, and proprietary patching mixes with special blends of aggregate and modified binders.
  6. Repair techniques; throw-and-roll, semi-permanent, spray injection, and edge seal 
  7. THROW -AND -ROLL REPAIR 

    Throw-and-roll method as the most basic method, best used as a temporary repair under conditions when it is difficult to control the placement of material, such as winter-time. It consists of:

    1. Placing the hot or cold patch material into a pothole
    2. Compacting the patch with a vehicle, such as a truck
    3. Achieving a crown on the compacted patch of between 3 and 6 mm

    This method is widely used due to its simplicity and speed

SEMI PERMANENT REPAIR

semi-permanent repair method as one of the best for repairing potholes, short of full-depth roadway replacement. It consists of:

1. Removing water and debris from the pothole
2. Making clean cuts along the sides of prospective patch area to assure that vertical sides of the repair are in sound pavement recommend
3. Placing the hot or cold patch mix material
4. Compacting the patch with a device that is smaller than the patch area, e.g. vibratory rollers or a vibratory plate
While this repair procedure provides durable results, it requires more labor and is more equipment-intensive than the throw-and-roll or the spray-injection procedure.

 

SPRAY INJECTION 

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Intercontinental China Coming Soon !

The architects behind Burj Al Arab designed a hotel in Shanghai China, The intercontinental shimao wonderland has 19 stories, 17 of which are below the ground level.
Two of the floors are above the 90-100 meter deep quarry.The abandoned quarry will be partially filled with water to create an artificial lake.
The project would include facilities for extreme sports, a visitor centre and a five-star hotel with some underwater rooms.
Extreme sports such as rock climbing and bungee jumping will be based on a structure which is cantilevered from the rock face.
The bottom two floors of the hotel will be below ground and will boast a glass-walled aquarium.
Construction is currently underway and the project might be handed over in 2018

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10 Movable bridges

A retractable bridge or retractile bridge is a type of movable bridge in which the deck can be rolled or slid backwards to open a gap while traffic crosses, usually a ship on a waterway. This type is sometimes referred to as a thrust bridge.

Bridges play a crucial role in connecting people, places and commodities. Yet as well as being functional, a lot of these structures are designed with an imaginative touch that adds to their surrounding environments. Still, sometimes building such important links over rivers and other waterways can prove especially challenging. And bridges for pedestrian and vehicle traffic may disrupt the movement of ships and barges – which in turn can be bad for business.
To compensate for this, inventive engineers and architects have risen to the challenge, creating a range of movable bridges that are intended to work in harmony with water traffic, causing as little disruption as possible. The following ten movable bridges have all been masterfully engineered, and among them are traditional examples, as well as more unusual designs – some of which even curl and fold.

10. Folding Bridge: Hörn Bridge – Kiel, Germany

Completed in 1997, the Hörn Bridge is a folding bridge located in the north German city of Kiel. Designed by Hamburg-based architecture firm Gerkan, Marg and Partners, the bridge enables pedestrians to cross over from the Norwegian ferry terminal to the city’s primary railroad station. The structure features on a circular tourist route and is known for its unique folding capabilities – as well as the panoramic views it offers.
The Hörn Bridge spans the Kiel Fjord and retracts into an “N” shape, generally once every hour, allowing ships to pass through. The deck of the bridge is over 16 feet wide and is drawn back by two hydraulic drives together with winches. The total length of the construction is 394 feet, while the folding section is 82 feet long and weighs 59.5 tons.

9. Transporter Bridge: Vizcaya Bridge – Biscay, Spain


Vizcaya Bridge stretches 538 feet across the Ibaizabal estuary in the Spanish province of Biscay. The pillars of this elegant structure tower 164 feet above the estuary, helping connect the towns of Portugalete and Las Arenas. Construction on the Vizcaya Bridge began near the end of the 19th century, after the right bank of the river was built up into housing settlements. Yet although a bridge was needed to allow people to get from their homes to their work, it was even more important that it didn’t interfere with the flow of traffic on the river – as about 12 million tons of cargo was exported annually via the waterway. Entwined steel ropes were used in the bridge’s construction, and these were a new invention at the time.
As for the moving and transportation qualities of the Vizcaya Bridge, a gondola is suspended over the river, and this enables people and vehicles to cross rapidly from one side to the other without disrupting water traffic. Visitors can also walk across the top of the bridge, which they access via elevators. Basque architect Alberto de Palacio designed the bridge – which was opened on June 16, 1893 – and it became a UNESCO World Heritage Site on July 13, 2006.

8. Bascule Bridge: Tower Bridge – London, England 

Bascule-Bridge , sometimes referred to as a drawbridge

Due to heavy traffic on the River Thames, no bridges were built east of London Bridge for quite some time. However, by the second half of the 19th century, the population in the east of the city had grown so much that a new river crossing became essential. After eight years of construction, the iconic bridge was officially opened – on June 30, 1894. The project involved five leading contractors and 432 construction workers. At the time, Tower Bridge was the biggest and most advanced bascule bridge in the world.
The central spans of the bridge were originally raised by steam-powered hydraulics, but since 1976 they have been lifted using electricity-powered oil hydraulics. Nowadays, Tower Bridge is a tourist hotspot in London, and visitors can enjoy amazing views from the structure’s high walkways – 143 feet above the Thames at high tide – and learn about its history at the Tower Bridge Exhibition.

7. Curling Bridge: The Rolling Bridge – London, England 


Also located in London, the smaller but no less impressive Rolling Bridge is a pedestrian bridge built to extend over an inlet of the Grand Union Canal in the Paddington Basin area of the British capital. In order to allow a boat to moor in the inlet, it was vital that the bridge be movable. The innovative and aesthetically pleasing structure was the brainchild of British designer Thomas Heatherwick and was constructed by Littlehampton Welding Ltd. Structural design practice Packman Lucas also played its part, as did SKM Anthony Hunts.
Technically speaking, it’s more of a curling bridge than a rolling bridge, because it coils up into an octagonal shape at the edge of the canal. The bridge is 39 feet long and is divided into eight triangular-shaped hinged sections that are controlled by a series of hydraulic cylinders. The bridge was completed in 2004 and won the British Structural Steel Award in 2005. It also picked up 2005’s Emerging Architecture Award. Heatherwick’s Rolling Bridge is believed to be the only curling bridge in the world.

6. Swing Bridge: El Ferdan Railway Bridge – Suez Canal/Ismailia, Egypt 


The El Ferdan Railway Bridge, also known as the Al-Firdan Bridge, extends over the Suez Canal, close to the city of Ismailia in the northeast region of Egypt. The bridge connects mainland Egypt with the Sinai Peninsula, and measuring 1,100 feet in length, it’s the world’s longest swing bridge. Both sides of the structure pivot on piers when it’s opening or closing, and thanks to a pair of electric slewing drives, it takes a total of 30 minutes to fully open.
Unlike other bridges on this list, the El Ferdan Railway Bridge stays open for water traffic, and it’s only closed to allow trains to cross the canal. A consortium of Belgian, German and Egyptian companies designed and built it, and construction was completed in 2001 at a cost of roughly $80 million. The bridge was officially opened on November 14, 2001.

5. Retractable Bridge: Helix Bridge – London, England 


The Helix Bridge (not to be confused with the Helix Bridge in Mariana Bay, Singapore) is a small retractable pedestrian bridge, and another that crosses the Grand Union Canal in the Paddington Basin area of London. This unique structure retracts like a corkscrew, which is slightly unusual because most retractable or thrust bridges draw straight back instead of twisting.
The Helix Bridge was built as part of a 2000 scheme to revitalize the Paddington Basin area, which had fallen into disrepair in spite of its closeness to central London. The bridge was the work of international engineering consultants Buro Happold and sculptor Marcus Taylor, and it was completed in 2004. Size-wise, it’s almost 24 feet long and just over 11 feet in diameter. Part of the challenge during the design process was ensuring that the glass and its adhesive bonds could withstand the stress caused whilst the bridge was in use. Interestingly, the advantage of a retractable bridge is that it does not obstruct any part of the waterway when space is tight.

4. Table Bridge: Pont Levant Notre Dame – Tournai, Belgium

Pont Levant Notre Dame (not to be confused with Pont Notre-Dame across the river Seine in Paris) is a movable table bridge located in Tournai, Belgium. In fact, the construction is a prime example of a table bridge – allowing barges traveling up and down the waterway to pass underneath.
The term “table bridge” derives, unsurprisingly enough, from the fact that the raised bridge looks like a table, and these structures are raised and lowered by hydraulic pillars (visible beneath the right-hand side of the bridge in the photo above). Unlike some other bridge types, table bridges are space-efficient and don’t have a big visual impact on the surrounding area, which is a definite advantage. When lowered, Pont Levant Notre Dame allows both pedestrians and vehicles to cross the river.

3. Submersible Bridge: Poseidonia and Isthmia – Corinth Canal, Greece

While other bridges over waterways tend to lift or draw back to allow boat traffic to pass through, two bridges at either end of the Corinth Canal in Greece employ a much more unusual strategy. Instead of lifting, the bridges submerge beneath the water’s surface to the bottom – and a depth of 26 feet – letting water traffic pass above them. The bridges are located at the harbors of Isthmia and Poseidonia and were installed in 1988.
Although submersible bridges restrict the draft (the distance between the waterline and hull) of boats passing through, there’s no limitation when it comes to vessels’ heights. This is especially useful with regards to sailboats, which might otherwise be limited by their tall masts and rigging. Reportedly, the bridge takes between 20 and 30 minutes to lower into the water.

2. Tilt Bridge: Gateshead Millennium Bridge – Newcastle upon Tyne, England

Officially opened on May 7, 2002, Gateshead Millennium Bridge is an elegant structure in Newcastle upon Tyne in northeast England. The bridge spans the River Tyne, connecting the north bank of the river with the cultural and arts quarter on the south bank, known as Gateshead Quays.
This award-winning bridge was designed for cyclists and pedestrians by architectural firm Wilkinson Eyre along with structural engineer company Gifford as part of a community regeneration scheme. Hydraulic rams power the mechanism of the bridge, and rather than lifting or folding, the bridge rotates upward around fixed endpoints to enable boats to travel underneath. Gateshead Millennium Bridge is 413 feet long and is the first bridge of its kind in the world. The curvature of the bridge is vital, as it allows for sufficient clearance beneath, yet this shape makes it unfeasible for cars to travel along the top.

1. Vertical Lift Bridge: Pont Gustave-Flaubert – Rouen, France 

The pylons of French vertical lift bridge Pont Gustave-Flaubert tower an impressive 282 feet above the River Seine in Rouen, Upper Normandy, making it the world’s highest lift bridge. Construction began in June 2004, and the bridge was opened on September 25, 2008. Impressively, it allows enough vertical clearance for sailboats and cruise ships to pass beneath it on their way to the city center.
A butterfly-shaped pulley system lifts the bridge’s dual decks to a total height of 180 feet in a mere 12 minutes. When lowered, the structure sits 23 feet above the river – high enough to let barges to pass underneath without difficulty. A consortium of designers and architects  developed the bridge.

 

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  • Concrete Framed Structures
    CONCRETE FRAMED STRUCTURES A concrete frame is a common form of structure, comprising a network of columns and connecting beams that form the structural ‘skeleton’ of a building. This grid of beams and columns is typically constructed on a concrete foundation and is used to support the building’s floors, roof, walls, cladding and so on. Beams are the horizontal load-bearing members of the frame. They are classified as either: Main beams: Transmitting floor and secondary beam loads to the columns; or Secondary beams: Transmitting floor loads to the main beams. Columns are the vertical members of the frame and are the building’s primary load-bearing element. They transmit the beam loads down to the foundations.  LOADS Structural analysis is a very important part of a design of buildings and other built assets such as bridges and tunnels, as structural loads can cause stress, deformation and displacement that may result in structural problems or even failure. The building regulations require that structures must be designed and built to be able to withstand all load types that they are likely to face during their life-cycle. These loads include: DEAD LOADS  The downwards forces on the building coming from the weight of the building itself, including the structural elements, walls, facades, and the like. They are also known as permanent or static loads, they are  predominantly associated with the weight of the structure itself LIVE LOADS The downward force on the building coming from the expected weight of the occupants and their possessions, including furniture DYNAMIC LOADS these occur commonly in bridges and similar infrastructure and are the loads created by traffic, including braking and accelerating loads. ENVIRONMENTAL LOADS Environmental loads may act on a structure as a result of topographic and weather conditions. Wind loads- This is a very important design factor, especially for tall buildings, or buildings with a large surface area Burj Khalifa the tallest building on the planet is designed in such a way that it withstands wind loads  ALSO READ : CHINESE GHOST TOWN The roof pitch is designed to withstand snow loads Snow loads - The shape of a roof is a particularly important factor in the magnitude of the snow load. Snow falling on a flat roof is likely to accumulate, whereas snow is more likely to fall of a steeper the roof pitch  Thermal loads - All materials expand or contract with temperature change and this can exert significant loadson a structure. Expansion joints can be provided at points on long sections of structures such as walls and floors so that elements of the structure are physically separated and can expand without causing structural damage.   CLADDING  Cladding - components that are attached to the concrete frame of a building to form non-structural, external surface. This is as opposed to buildings in which the external surfaces are formed by structural elements, such as masonry walls, or applied surfaces such as render.  Glass cladding   ALSO READ : SMART HOMES Whilst cladding is generally attached to the structure of the building, it typically does not contribute to its stability. However, cladding does play a structural role, transferring wind loads, impact loads, snow loads and its own self-weight back to the structural framework. Since concrete has little tensile strength, it generally needs to be reinforced. Rebar, also known as reinforcement steel (or reinforcing steel), is a steel bar or mesh of steel wires used to strengthen and hold the concrete in tension. To improve the quality of the bond with the concrete, the surface of the rebar is often patterned. Concrete frames can be precast (manufactured off-site) or cast on site. PRECAST CONCRETE  Precast concrete is a form of concrete that is prepared, cast and cured off-site, usually in a controlled factory environment, using reusable moulds. Precast concrete elements can be joined to other elements to form a complete structure. It is typically used for structural components such as; wall panels, beams, columns, floors, staircases, pipes, tunnels, and so on. Precast concrete frames are typically used for single-storey and low-rise structures. The concrete members transported to the site where a crane then lifts and places them into position to construct the frame FORMWORK Concrete members can be formed on site with the use of formwork. This is a temporary mould into which concrete is poured. Traditional formwork is fabricated using timber, but it can also be constructed from steel, glass fibre reinforced plastics and other materials. Shuttering is perhaps the most popular type of formwork and is normally constructed on site using timber and plywood. SLIP FORMWORK  Slip form is a method of construction in which concrete is poured into the top of a continuously moving formwork. As the concrete is poured, the formwork is raised vertically at a speed which allows the concrete to harden before it is free from the formwork at the bottom..  Slip form is most economical for structures over 7 storeys high such as bridges and towers, as it is the fastest method of construction for vertical reinforced concrete structures, but it can also be used for horizontal structures such as roadways.   click on the banner above and win big with construction web      
  • Details on Steel framed structures
    This period of July we zero in structures, from wooden framed structures to concrete framed structures pre-engineered buildings and load bearing structures so makes sure to come back for more  Most steel assembly is done with a type of steel called mild steel. Mild steel is a material that is immensely secure.  Take a circular bar of steel 1 inch / 25mm in diameter. If you were to attach this bar securely to your ceiling you could hang from it 20,000 Kg (which is 20 tons), or any one of the following: 2 and a half African Elephants 1 and a half London City Routemaster Double-Decker Buses  18 Toyota Vitz   We urge you to try this at home unless you are coupled. This immense strength is of great benefit to buildings.  The other important feature of steel framing is its flexibility.  It can bend without cracking, which is another great advantage, as a steel building can flex when it is pushed to one side by say, wind, or an earthquake.  The third component of steel is its plasticity or ductility.  This means that when subjected to great force, it will not suddenly crack like glass, but slowly bend out of shape.  This property allows steel buildings to bend out of shape, or deform, thus giving warning to inhabitants to escape.  Failure in steel frames is not sudden - a steel structure rarely collapses.  Steel in most cases performs far better in an earthquake than most other materials because of these properties. However, one important property of steel is that it quickly loses its strength in a fire. At 500 degrees Celsius (930 degrees F), mild steel can lose almost half its strength. This is what happened at the collapse of the World Trade Towers in 2001. Therefore, steel in buildings must be protected from fire or high temperature; this is usually done by wrapping it with boards or a spray-on material called fire protection.    PRIME EXAMPLES STEEL FRAME STRUCTURES  Steel construction is most often used in  High rise buildings because of its strength, low weight, and speed of construction Industrial buildings because of its ability to create large span spaces at low-cost Warehouse buildings for the same reason Residential buildings in a technique called light gauge steel construction Temporary Structures as these are quick to set up and remove TYPES OF STEEL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION There are several types of steel building construction. Steel construction is also called steel  fabrication. Conventional Steel Fabrication is when teams of steel fabricators cut members of steel to the correct lengths and then weld them together to make the final structure. This can be done entirely at the construction site, which is labour-intensive, or partially in a workshop, to provide better working conditions and reduce time. Bolted Steel Construction occurs when steel fabricators produce finished and painted steel components, which are then shipped to the site and simply bolted in place. This is the preferred method of steel construction, as the bulk of the fabrication can be done in workshops, with the right machinery, lighting, and work conditions. The size of the components is governed by the size of the truck or trailer they are shipped in, usually with a max length of 6m (20ft) for normal trucks or 12m (40ft) for long trailers. Since the only work to be done at the site is lifting the steel members into place (with cranes) and bolting, the work at the site is tremendously fast. Pre-engineered buildings are an example of bolted steel construction that is designed, fabricated, shipped and erected by one company to the owner. Light Gauge Steel Construction is a type of construction that is common for residential and small buildings in North America and parts of Europe. This is similar to wood framed construction, except that light gauge steel members are used in place of wood two-by-fours. Light gauge steel is steel that is in the form of thin (1-3mm) sheets of steel that have been bent into shape to form C-sections or Z-sections. WEIGHT OF STEEL FRAME STRUCTURES Consider a single storey building measuring 5 x 8m (16 x 26ft). Let us first construct this in concrete, with four columns at the corners, beams spanning between the columns, and a 150mm (6") thick concrete slab at the top. Such a structure would weigh about 800 kg/m2, or 32 Tons (32,000 kg) in total. If we build this of steel instead, with a sloping roof covered with corrugated metal sheeting with insulation, this would weigh only about 65 kg/m2. The steel framed building will weigh only 2.6 Tons (2,600 kg). So the concrete building is over 12 times heavier! This is for single storey structures - in multi-storey structures, the difference will be less, as the floors in multi-storey steel buildings are built of concrete slabs for the economy - but the difference is still significant.  This low weight of steel frame buildings means that they have to be firmly bolted to the foundations to resist wind forces, else they could be blown away like deck umbrellas! ADVANTAGES OF STEEL STRUCTURES Steel structures have the following advantages: They are super-quick to build at the site, as a lot of work can be prefaced at the factory. They are flexible, which makes them very good at resisting dynamic (changing) forces such as wind or earthquake forces. A wide range of ready-made structural sections are available, such as I, C, and angle sections They can be made to take any kind of shape and clad with any type of material A wide range of joining methods is available, such as bolting, welding, and riveting DISADVANTAGES OF STEEL STRUCTURES Steel structures have the following disadvantages: They lose strength at high temperatures and are susceptible to fire. They are prone to corrosion in humid or marine environments.
  • Quick Furniture Tips
    Furniture placement can be a tricky task. It's a question anyone who owns furniture is forced to confront: What is the best way to arrange it? When space comes at a premium, that question becomes even trickier to answer.  Luckily, here at constructionweb we have created this article to help you pro guide you. The handy guide features tricks of the trade that help optimize the space in any room. And while trial and error are to be expected, knowing these key furniture arranging tips and tricks will only help make the design method smoother.  Basically, there are two steps to proper furniture placement: Planning your layout and then bringing that layout to life. More conceptual tricks include considering the function of each piece of furniture and figuring out how to keep traffic moving. The first step is hectic clear the room, if possible. I know this can be difficult, especially in a confined, city apartment, but it is sometimes impossible to reflect a fresh new look unless you begin with a blank palette. Alternatively, you can draw the preferred layout on a piece of paper before placement. Every room needs one. Yeah, a focal point. Create a focal point  This is the defining element in your room. It could be  a fireplace or a unique of furniture or artwork. Your furniture should be arranged to take advantage of your focal point. For example, in the living room or bedroom, the sofa or bed should face the focal point. Arrange your seats in a way that enables conversation. For example, instead of placing two chairs across from the couch facing them upright ahead, angle them toward each other  Coming in 4th is the Wall-art ratio Homeowners generally hang wall portraits at eye altitude, similar to the organization in an art gallery, so visitants can appreciate them. If you’d like to give the idea of a taller ceiling, dangle wall art slightly lower than eye height to create more distance between the top of the art and the ceiling. Each furniture doesn’t have to be parallel to or at a 90-degree angle from your walls or other pieces of chattels. Try placing a sofa, loveseat or chairs on an angle to deal with space constraints, encourage dialogue and create asymmetry. If your house got a dining room area consider banquette arrangement. A banquette is a permanent bench-like seat attached to a wall. You don’t have to push chairs in and out as you sit, The advantage installing banquette is you can use them to provide extra storage. l. Most fast foods joints are designed like this, for instance, java house  Use an area rug it helps any visitant define a space, such as a convenient seating setup. The rug should be wide enough so all seating and tables are completely placed on the rug. Sofas and chairs that are half-on, half-off a rug don’t let you define the entire space. 8 The theatre experience - When installing up your TV room, think of where people will be sitting when they watch the screen and what time of day they’ll be watching. Daytime viewing means sunlight coming through windows—don’t place video screens facing them. Evening viewing means lights will be on, which can shine onto screens. Test lamp and screen placement before you move heavy equipment. Don’t place audio speakers near walls, which can absorb sound and create vibrations. Keep them at least 6 inches from walls, drapes and furniture.   That is all we have for you today please share this thanks, click on this poster and stand a chance to win a gift hamper 
  • CHINESE GHOST TOWN
    Inside one of China's largest ghost towns: Development next to nuclear power plant left deserted as locals fear radiation poisoning The complex in Huizhou, in the southeast of China, is one of the country's largest white elephants Named Dayawan, the buildings stand near to a nuclear power plant which has put people off living in the area Recently at night lights were seen on in only two out of 2,328 apartments This is one of China's ghost towns - a 14 square mile development where no-one wants to live. The complex in Huizhou in Guangdong province in the southeast of China is one of the country's largest white elephants. Named Dayawan, the buildings stand near to a nuclear power plant. Where is everyone? The complex in Huizhou in Guangdong province in the southeast of China is one of the country's largest white elephants   Locals fear radiation poisoning and have kept away. The development is also at least an hour's drive from the nearby major metropolis of Shenzhen, another factor for keeping it empty of residents. Despite the fact that the homes are low cost, developers have been unable to sell them. The development is also at least an hour's drive from the nearby major metropolis of Shenzhen White elephant: Rows upon rows of apartment blocks stand empty in Huizhou in Guangdong province
  • 21st BUILD EXPO, NAIROBI KENYA
    For the past 21 years, something better has been gracing our construction industry and 2018 is no exception, On 3rd through 5th May, The annual building and construction expo is happening at the Kenyatta international conference centre. Buildexpo is the most prominent building and construction trade exhibition in Kenya and one of the largest fairs in Africa. Africa, the market of the millennium has been gaining immense attention from global manufacturers and exporters seeking tie-ups with importers in Africa for building products.The Kenya construction trade fair in 2018 featured exhibitors from over 40 countries. Exhibitions enable you to meet the people that matter to your business in one place, including existing customers, new prospects, suppliers, advisers, investors and key figures in the industry. You can use networking to forge productive relationships with key people. Over time, these contacts can become powerful advocates that support and promote your business, That is enough reason for you not to miss this expo Few of the brands exhibiting are Apex steel from Kenya,  Carvatorta group from France, Regal equipment limited, Tononoka Group among other prime exhibitors. See you then  
  • Container Housing
    In the 21st Century, shipping containers are being used more frequently for architecture than they are for actual shipping, It is just an opinion. There are several reasons why shipping container housing has grown in popularity. The houses are  1.Cost-effective  The general consensus is that shipping container homes are cheaper to build than conventional housing. The budget really depends on the situation, but shipping containers reduce costs dramatically in areas where it’s difficult to erect regular housing, such as sloping blocks of land. 2. Eco-friendly One of the biggest pros of building a shipping container home, Whilst you could argue that melting down the shipping container and recasting the steel into something else is more environmentally friendly, you would be wrong. Recasting steel requires an incredible amount of energy and it isn’t financially viable- this is why there are so many abandoned shipping containers in the world. 3. Speedy to build Shipping container homes can be built incredibly fast, They can be built offsite then shipped to your Land.  The best example of this is a college in Holland wanted an additional accommodation for incoming students, So they decided to build a block of shipping container homes out of 250 containers. The shipping containers were modified in China and then shipped to Amsterdam. In total around 5 shipping containers were stacked each day. This means that in less than 12 weeks they had successfully built 250 shipping container homes! The reason for this is that when you purchase a shipping container, you already have the walls, floor and ceiling for your home; you just need to apply insulation and decorate them! But some architects say the trendy metal boxes have major flaws and are not worth the hype   It’s hard to believe this Grand Designs featured home is constructed out of four shipping containers. Architect Patrick Bradley chose to use cargo containers for the house located on his farm in Northern Ireland, as a way to bring down the cost. Contractor: I know that one of the hardest things to do when building a shipping container home is to find a building contractor who has experience. You want a contractor with experience so they will be able to advise you and guide you throughout the process. READ MORE:  Movable Minimalist House   Products shipped: Used shipping containers can have high levels of chemical residue – they are coated with lead-based paint to withstand ocean spray. Containers’ structural integrity can also be compromised if they are dented.    Structural issues: A shipping container is very strong at the corners, but the roof is not that strong, so typically you need to build another roof over it Space and shape are quite limiting in containers and can quickly be consumed by plumbing Follow us behind the scenes   @constructionweb
  • Nairobi city and Co-working spaces
    Around 10 years ago coworking spaces began opening up to offer affordable office space solutions to startups and freelancers, but recently much larger tech firms have been jumping in. Companies are now looking for the benefits of locating in these shared office environments. As a result, big media conglomerates and newly crowned tech giants have been moving employees to coworking and incubator spaces.   Arbor House Business Centre. along Arboretum Road Nairobi Well, this is Happening all over the world but In The safari Capital Of Africa, Nairobi Coworking spaces are mushrooming all over the city, Beautiful spaces that we will be looking at them soon. Currently, Large corporations are partnering with coworking spaces to support innovation and idea exchanges. Tech giants such as Verizon, IBM and Microsoft are now testing coworking spaces to be near innovative startups. The twig Co work at West End towers in Waiyaki way Corporations are forming partnerships with coworking spaces, thereby making it easier for them to stay on top of technological innovations and top talent. They want to keep an ear to the ground when it comes to potential disruptions in their industry, and they need to closely monitor potential acquisition targets. Renting space in coworking spaces can help them check all of the boxes: Attract top talent, monitor competition, and find acquisition targets. Here are a few examples of partnerships in the past couple of years  This is the new wave jump on the bandwagon and save big!  Nairobi’s startup scene is taking off, and community workspaces are revving up its fame as East Africa’s cosmopolitan hub.  These coworking spaces are not the run-of-the-mill startup campuses you would expect to find anywhere else in Africa. If you are an up-and-coming startup or small business looking to get noticed, there is no better place to make those connections happen. One trend coming out of coworking spaces, like The Mint Hub ,  The Twig,  AHBC,  Workstyle Africa is integrating incubators into their business development strategies. By offering space and an environment with resources, they are able to cater and retain members who are launching startups.   The Mint Hub The demand for shared office coworking spaces is surging in the Nairobi and around the world, with several mega corporates over this past year deciding to jump into the game. So why would you start a business and rent an overpriced office space in town?   catch you on the next one!  Sharing is caring   
  • House Review
    Strategic placement of any building becomes paramount when it comes to a large site. This was the case with the 2.5-acre site for a new farmhouse in Chhattarpur, New Delhi, where the land was exceptionally narrow and deep. The narrowness of this west facing plot was challenging because placing the built mass either in front or at back resulted in enormous, wasteful lawns at the other ends. Besides, the presence of an adjoining old three storey residential building to the north with an array of servant rooms situated on its terrace looking into our site, made it imperative to place our building parallel to this adjoining block such that there is no visibility of this mammoth structure from the south courtyard of our building.  The main mass of the building was designed along the length to counter the linearity of the plot and was positioned towards the north side creating a south facing court and avoiding ‘over-looking’ issues from the neighbours. The south court was flanked with the formal living and bar to the west with the gymnasium/ den area to the southeast corner. This resulted in an intimate court adjoining the informal lounge of the house. The initial planning provided for a pool positioned in the court next to the gym block but was later shifted to the northeast of the building on client’s behest. The main building being linear along the north and the formal area located in the south-west spanning the width of the plot resulted in an ‘L’ shaped typology. What it helped do was to segregate the formal front lawns with the more intimate central courtyard. Placing the living room between these open zones gave the user a benefit of clubbing these areas for larger gathering. The architectural vocabulary of the building was actually generated with the response to its orientation. The front of the house facing west is either expanse of solid white planes or timber louvres provided in front of openings with glass. The entrance of the house is flanked with a granite-clad stone wall that directs the movement towards the main door. An elegant steel and wood canopy projects out over the entry. The bar, located at the other end from the entrance, was cladded with same stone and it wrapped around onto the side facing the internal courtyard. The master bedroom sat on top of the bar and precariously cantilevered out towards the court. High roof of the master bedroom balcony provided an unobtrusive view of the courtyard and poolside area with the rear lawn. An open verandah was designed outside formal living with louvers on the roof protecting the length of the glass from direct evening sun.   Compositionally, there is a subtle balance between the solid and void that has been created to the front of the house. Towards the south court, the glazing has been maximized on the ground floor with adequate shade being provided by the building mass projecting out on the first floor.  The staircase was custom-designed and fabricated out of steel and timber and is placed along a full height transparent wall in the entrance atrium which faces north. This glass and aluminum skin turns horizontal at the top and becomes part of the roof.   Source : Home Adore
  • TIPS ON EXTERIOR DESIGNS
    Never underrate the importance of a first impression! Home exteriors are the very first thing next-door-neighbour, guests and prospective clients see, so you want your exterior home design to impress. Whether you are considering an exterior renovation to upgrade your curb appeal and resale value, or simply want to enhance your home’s artistic and ambience, choosing the right exterior design for your home is an important undertaking. If you are building, this conception stage begins with choosing a good architectural firm that designs your new house then proceed to buy materials.  When exploring various exterior ideas, it is important to remember there are different phases of a home exterior makeover. Exterior remodelling is not much different than interior design — both projects require careful consideration of all the components involved. If you're starting from scratch, browse exterior photos from our Instagram and determine what kind of home exterior design ideas you are drawn to, Another option is to check out Maramani House Plans Once that's decided, consider materials and colours  Your overall home and neighbourhood style will generally guide these selections, but your personal taste and resale ability should also be taken into consideration. When this phase is complete, you can then move on to researching exterior decorating ideas! Adding some finishing touches to the facade, like exterior shutters, always guarantees a personalized, lived-in look, whereas something like exterior lighting is both functional and aesthetically pleasing. Which home exterior design style will work for me? There is a huge range of exterior designs to choose from Maramani — whether you're a traditionalist, minimalist or trendsetter, there is an architectural style that will work for you. What exterior house colours and materials should I use? The materials you end up using for your exterior design are often determined by the overall style of the house. When perusing exterior ideas for more traditional homes, you’ll notice that exteriors are usually comprised of brick and wood shingles, while stone and metal siding are popular contemporary options for more modern homes. If you’re on a tight budget, vinyl siding is a more affordable option; if money is not an issue, a stone is beautiful but will cost quite a bit more. Although there is some leeway in the materials you use, be sure they accurately reflect your home’s overall style.  If you're not quite ready for a full-on renovation, there are still several exterior ideas … Simple things like changing up the trim and paint colours will make a noticeable impact — try to pick a neutral primary colour, like beige, brown or grey. If you want to stray from the norm with bright accents, try painting your front door or garage door something bright, such as red, green, blue or yellow. As you consider various exterior decorating ideas, you’ll notice that less is more; a few decorative elements spice up your home's architectural style but too many can make your exterior design look cluttered and chaotic. House numbers are a great way to add personality; you can try a unique font or brighter colours for a different look When the holiday season rolls around, don't forget about decorations! Landscaping is also key to a well-designed exterior, so choose plants and hardscaping that will play nicely with the decor to provide a welcoming look.
  • DUPLEX APARTMENTS INTERIOR DESIGN
    It is Wednesday, Interior design is the theme but if you are bubbly enough Interior Wednesdays it is, Anyway Can you tell your duplex from your two-floor apartment without getting your mezzanine in a twist? Well, a duplex apartment is a dwelling unit spread over two floors, such apartments are connected by an inner staircase. Here is a good example, Just after the nook, the entryway features contemporary furniture   The modern stairs feature glass panes replacing traditional balustrades, under the stairs storage compartments are fitted  Comfortable contemporary furnishings provide ample seating for relaxing on one’s own as well as visiting with guests. The backsplash is graced by light brown tiles to cap it all it is illuminated by LED lights State of the art circular bathtub
  • TECH TUESDAY ; WALABOT REVIEW
    Not Long ago, The year 2000 or thereabouts construction workers especially renovators and remodelling workers faced a myriad of challenges one of the challenges is messing up with clients electric wiring or mechanical pipes. This forced guys to bring down an entire wall to fix something that was not on the work schedule.   Then in 2014, Things changed for the better,  A startUp company introduced  Walabot, Focused on advanced imaging capabilities, Walabot lets users see through solid objects, like walls and create 3D images. The gadget tailored to DIYers, house renovators, construction, electrician and anyone who wants to have an easy way to make their home better. Walabot is growing, and after review understandably so, it acts as lifesavers for the construction workers everywhere.  Walabot’s rivals locate framings by using a magnet which then locates a nail in the framing but what happens if the nail wasn’t hammered into the centre of the stud? Things might go south! Walabot covers all those weaknesses It is among the first firms to use RF detectors to create 3D images. The device has the capability to see 4 inches (10cm) deep behind a drywall or concrete. it can detect normal things which you would expect behind a wall like frames, wiring and pipes. The device can help you see leaks, broken pipes, structural damage to your foundation and even detect little-unwanted guests like rodents. Walabot only works with Android phones, Apple phones will have to wait for their launch. I found out this is the only drawback it has.   Check out the video, below for better comprehension     
  • TILE INSTALLATION GUIDE
    A ceramic tile will outperform and outlast nearly any other floor covering product created for the same application. Here at constructionweb, I lead you to the choice of tiles to layout and grouting.  When it comes the selection of tiles, A lot comes into play this includes;  SELECTION OF TILES  Material -  Tile materials are porcelain, ceramic, brick, marble, laminate, slate, mosaic and vinyl. All these materials are available in many colours and price ranges. Installation - Rooms such as the living room and kitchen require tough tiles that will last for long. Kids bedroom require tiles that will stand up to abrasion and heavy use as well.   Durability - While some tiles are resistant to wear and tear, some other options such as granite and marble may be prone to cracks and staining. Before tile selection, carefully consider the foot traffic in the intended area of installation Resistance to water- In areas of installation such as the kitchen and bathroom floors, some of the better options for tiles are materials such as marble, granite, mosaic or ceramic. However, you must also remember that the smooth finish on marble and granite can increase the chances slipping. Slip resistant tiles are the best option.  Hardwood and laminate are not good choices for the kitchen or bathroom  Picture: Bathroom designs the USA Resistance to chemicals -  Slates are hardy  tiles and the best choice for areas with chemical handling  Maintenance- The ease of cleaning or maintenance should be put into consideration, Ceramic tile is long-lasting and relatively easy to maintain. Glazed ceramic tile is generally resistant to stains, water, fire and dirt, and can be cleaned up with a damp mop or sponge and common household cleaners.  Unglazed porcelain tile is popular for its natural look and chameleon properties, it is slightly more difficult to maintain and requires extra sweeping and damp mopping to prevent staining. Pricing - Well, the price should be in your budget  Availability - In case of tile breakage long after installation,  A similar tile should be readily available at the local depots  GROUT  Grout simply is a sealant used to lock the tiles tight, keeping water out and bonding the tiles together preventing the edges from chipping and cracking. Grout helps in controlling the functionality and durability of tiles and plays a major role in the day-to-day maintenance and the overall longevity of your tiles. There are three methods when it comes to choosing the most suitable grout : Matching grout Matching the grout colour to the tile colour makes the grout lines less noticeable and therefore the tile itself is accented. This is the best option if you have over-the-top beautiful tiles with a basic layout.  Contrasting grout Picture: Homesteady A conflicting grout colour and tile colour will emphasize both the design and layout of the tiles, rather than the tile itself. Grout is a whole other design decision, therefore, gives it the consideration it deserves. Neutral grout A neutral grout produces an appearance somewhere in between matching and contrast. Guess who lacked a clear explanation of this  EXTRA TILE TIPS When dealing with mismatched tiling, don't vary the size, shape or colour palette and vice versa — always have a single consistent feature. Though tile is durable and long-lasting, you may need to replace broken floor tiles occasionally. If you didn't save spares from the initial installation, there are a few options. Thank you for reading, Do have a great day ahead  
  • Why Kenyans Needs to invest in solar energy
    Last night Kenya and Uganda were plunged into darkness following a blackout in major towns. The power outage comes months after a similar blackout was experienced in Kenya but this time Kenya went down with Uganda.  Kenya power and The utility firm in Uganda confirmed on their twitter.  It just about the time we invest in solar farming and other sources of renewable energy, I thought should highlight the benefits of solar energy because it is readily available.  READ: SMART FLOWER SOLAR PANELS There are many reasons why you should go solar, but improving the environment and cutting energy costs are the most common. Whether your motivations for going solar are economic, environmental, or personal here is why you should go solar.  Reduce your electric bills  Increase your property value - Realtors whose homes are fully equipped with solar systems are rated highly in the price tags  Protect the environment - Solar is a great way to reduce your carbon footprint. The burning of fossil fuels releases harmful toxins into the earth’s atmosphere, and drilling for geothermal energy could lead to earthquakes. However, one of the most important benefits of solar energy is that it does not harm the earth. Sustainability - The sun generates 10,000 times more energy than the earth needs annually and using this energy does not affect the performance of the sun therefore solar energy is a clean source of energy that has a much lower environmental impact than conventional energy technologies. Finally, One of the benefits of solar energy that many people appreciate the most is that it is available off the national grid. In other words, people can become self-sufficient and enjoy all of the power they need for their homes and businesses and avoid all this mess of national blackouts.   Always remember technology does not cost money it saves money.  VIDEO
  • What is Green Building ?
    Welcome to another blog post from Construction web, catch us each and every day of 2018, Keeping you inspired at the same time updated in the construction world. Each Friday, Spotlight on green building and reviews. But on this first Friday lets talk green building  Green building refers to the structure and the application of processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle, from conception through completion to demolition. This requires close cooperation of the contractor, the architects, the engineers, and the client at all project stages.  Most countries have a set of rating systems for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green buildings or rather an authoritative body that governs and checks compliance of local buildings. The common objective of green buildings is to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by: Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity  Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation   SMART FLOWER SOLAR PANELS SMART HOUSES THE STATE OF THE REAL ESTATES Examples of green technology subject areas: Energy Perhaps the most urgent issue for green technology, this includes the development of alternative fuels, new means of generating energy and energy efficiency. Green building Green building encompasses everything from the choice of building materials to where a building is located. Environmentally preferred purchasing  Innovation involves the search for products whose contents and methods of production have the smallest possible impact on the environment and mandates that these be the preferred products for government purchasing. Green chemistry The invention, design application of chemical products and processes to reduce or to eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. Green nanotechnology Nanotechnology involves the manipulation of materials at the scale of the nanometer, one billionth of a meter. Some scientists believe that mastery of this subject is forthcoming that will transform the way that everything in the world is manufactured. “Green nanotechnology” is the application of green chemistry and green engineering principles to this field. Well, that's it for today Make sure to pass by our Instagram page for amazing giveaways  Click on the banner to follow us
  • Exterior Designs ( Thursdays)
    From traditional houses to contemporary houses learn about the most popular home styles, their history and the key elements of each style only on www.constructionweb.co.ke each and Every Thursday Building your own house is quite possibly the most exciting and rewarding endeavour for anyone to undertake. And it all starts with the perfect home design. I am here to help ensure that you get off to a perfect start! Just in case you were wondering why you should subscribe to our blog  The fun part of designing your new house is the exterior style. You will not need to do more calculating. It is just time to have fun choosing a style that you like.  The style chosen should usually blend in with the other homes in the community and region. Even though the style fits in with the other homes within the community, you can still customize it to reflect your taste.  As a safety factor, consider the resale value of the home with the exterior style that you choose. This may be an important value consideration if the time comes that you decide to sell the home. The two most prevalent styles on the market today are traditional and contemporary.   ALSO READ  SMART HOUSES Top 5 construction Trends Traditional houses are considered simple. They usually have small-paned or mullioned windows spaced symmetrically.  They vary  from location or even countries  Contemporary designs came to break the rules,  They have no particular shapes, they have large amounts of glass, shuttered windows, decorative trims, and roof lines that range from flat to very steep. Siding is vertical or horizontal wood, stucco, or masonry. Contemporary does not really have any style rules.  Well that's it,  the introductory blog it is, please pass by next Thursday for more updates on exterior design Thanks for reading   Click on the banner below  to Follow us on Instagram to see more of contemporary designs 
  • Interior Wednesday
    Interior Wednesdays | January 3, 2018, | @constructionweb Today, more than ever, the beauty of natural stone is a designer's favourite choice, architects and homebuilders agree as well. Natural stone tiles are fast becoming the flooring and walling material of choice. A stone wall is a great way to add a feature to your home that will make it stand out and unique. It is a great idea to introduce texture and nature inspiration too. Moreover, it is not necessary that you have to build a stone wall in a rustic setting of an interior design.Natural stone is a dynamic and versatile product that can be used in both traditional and contemporary buildings. Widespread types of stones used in interior design: limestone, sandstone, brick, slate and coral stone. I have discovered a roundup that features stone walls used in many different ways. ALSO READ :   WINDOW TREATMENT IDEAS KITCHEN FLOORING TRENDS CONTEMPORARY KITCHENS   STONEWALLED BATHHOUSE    Stonewalled bathhouse Both stones and plants are creations of nature, so they look great together. FLOOR TO CEILING FIREPLACE SURROUND    Accentuating seams in contrasting hue will emphasize bold patterns of natural stone. You will get a better effect if stones vary in sizes and shapes. If your room is not spacious enough, consider decorating only a part of the wall with natural stone in order not to overload an interior. Believe me, even the small part of a stone decorated wall will guarantee the same effect as the full wall. WELL LIT  NOOKS  Proper lighting will intensify the wonderful texture of natural stone.   Combine natural stones with warming materials like fur, cashmere, fleecy rugs and pillows since stone surface adds a cold feel to the room. Bring bright-coloured accents in warm shades of yellow, orange and red to make an area look welcoming and cheerful. Hope these tips will help you create a unique room interior with a welcoming ambience and earthy feel. Would you dare to decorate your walls with natural stones? 
  • Top 5 Construction Trends in 2018.
    The year, 2018, I made a resolution, a resolution to keep construction web readers always updated and informed in the construction world. You might as well bookmark this site, Did someone ask why? Well, brace yourself for 365 blog posts.  Check out my new year resolution here  Construction Web In 2018 So without much ado let's get down to business, wait, I mean construction trends, In 1900, craftsmen with varying levels of skill manufactured carts one at a time. Even the best of these carts provided little more than basic transportation. Yet in at the same time, master masons and builders created incredible stone houses using principles of design and construction that were breathtaking for the time.  Today the technologies of both manufacturing and construction have changed, but not nearly to the same degree. For many reasons, that I won't state, the basic construction process of building stick by stick, piece by piece, has remained unchanged since the Middle Ages whereas in Manufacturing miracles are happening. It is now the 21st century that we are seeing technological breakthroughs which set new waves in productivity. So I decided to put together an article that outlines the emerging trends to look out for in the year 2018!  IN SUMMARY Building Information Modelling Virtual  and Augmented realities  Modular and prefab houses  Green construction  Project management software   1 Building Information Model (BIM) Building Information Modelling is a process that gives construction professionals the insight and tools to efficiently plan, design, construct, operate and maintain diverse physical infrastructures, such as water, refuse, electricity, gas, communication utilities, roads, bridges, ports, tunnels, etc.  Benefits to the construction industry already have been significant in several respects, thanks to BIM features like the collaboration features, conflict resolution features. The features reduce interferences, which are instances where the design of separate systems, such as electrical conduit and high-voltage alternating current ducting, compete for the same physical space.  So it’s clear that there is going to be less resistance with adapting BIM in construction projects. In fact, with favourable responses on previous years, we might see more advancements with BIM in 2018.   EDITORS PICK  KIEFER TECHNIC SHOWROOM 2 Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality  While the construction industry has been notoriously slow to jump into the technology revolution, soon companies will have no choice.  Another big thing to look out for is an increase in virtual and augmented reality use. This type of technology is changing the entire industry, Its biggest benefit is the ability to provide virtual walkthroughs in order to sell property and   Preparing workers to operate the necessary machinery through simulation is a very effective method. VR enables easy communication and collaboration on site.  .3 Green Construction  Environmental sustainability has become a hot topic of discussion in the last few years and is expected to raise more dust. In 2018, a focus on ecological benefits will remain a trend throughout the industry as well as an increased emphasis on the financial benefits. Expect to see increasingly green business models!  ALSO, READ  SMART FLOWER SOLAR PANELS  SMART HOUSES 4.modular and prefabrication construction projects In 2017, modular and prefabrication construction has become an increasingly popular trend due to its cost-effectiveness and energy efficiency. Modular and prefabrication construction will continue to be an attractive option in 2018. Expect to see a lot more pop-ups and permanent modular buildings, as well as prefab houses this year! However, the basic building blocks of construction—steel and concrete—are expected to remain relatively unchanged. Specific qualities of these materials will be improved, but no major substitute material is on the horizon.  EDITORS PICK  MOVABLE MINIMALIST HOUSE  5 Project Management Softwares In job sites of the past, the first tools unpacked were the shovels. Today, the first things out of the box are often computers. Terminals and graphics workstation, These computers provide communications links with the engineering office, the client, and relevant vendors or fabricators. The software also provides the construction industry with three fundamental advantages: Efficiency, Transparency and Accountability. The latest software provides real-time communication, project overview, trackability and integrations with other software, therefore, a  system of controls optimize the design, procurement, and construction process.  Most importantly, Expect Construction web 2.0 sharing is caring ⇓
  • Basic requirements of a building
    Hi Construction savvy,  The year 2017 is and will never come back to your life, You had a rough one? hang on in there 2018 will be interesting to you.  Never give up on your dreams.  Here at construction web, we have a lot for you, of course, it has to do with building and construction, interior design and generally home decor.  We have themed blog posts each day of 2018.  We are coming up with video contents or rather vlogs later into the year  Weekly Ebooks on home decor  We ask for your support throughout the year, We believe you will benefit our daily content and win monthly giveaways ⇐CLICK ON THE BANNER AND WIN  Basic requirements of a building  1. Strength and Stability: Building should be capable of transferring the expected loads in its life period safely to the ground. Design of various structural components like slabs, beams, walls, columns footings should ensure safety. None of the structural components should buckle, overturn and collapse. 2. Dimensional Stability: Excessive deformation of structural components give a sense of instability and result into a crack in walls, flooring etc. All structural components should be so designed that deflections do not exceed the permissible values specified in the codes. 3. Resistance to Dampness: Dampness in a building is a great nuisance and it may reduce the life of the building. Great care should be taken in planning and in the construction of the building to avoid dampness. 4. Resistance to Fire: Regarding achieving resistance to fire, the basic requirements laid down in the codes are: (a) the structure should not ignite easily. (b) building orientation should be such that spread of fire is slow. (c) In case of fire, there should be means of easy access to vacate building quickly. 5. Heat Insulation: A building should be so oriented and designed that it insulates interior from heat. 6. Sound Insulation: Buildings should be planned against outdoor and indoor noises. 7. Protection from Termite: Buildings should be protected from termites. 8. Durability: Each and every component of the building should be durable. 9. Security against Burglary: This is the basic need the owner of the building expects. 10. Lighting and Ventilation: For healthy and happy living natural light and ventilation are required. Diffused light and good cross ventilation should be available inside the building. 11. Comforts and Conveniences: Various units in the building should be properly grouped and integrated keeping in mind the comfort and convenience of the user. 12. Economy: Economy without sacrificing comfort, convenience & durability is another basic requirement of the building. SUBSCRIBE TO OUR YOUTUBE CHANNEL BELOW 
  • Technology in the construction industry
    I am glad you made it to  ConstructionWeb on Tuesday, November 28th, 2017. This is a special Tuesday for us and probably you who is reading this, We are introducing a new segment on the website. The segment dubbed Tech Tuesday will zero in on technology in the construction industry,  Tech applied from conception, implementation and finally to demolition.  We will focus on tools reviews and giveaway some on our social media channels.  In today’s technology-driven world, it should come as no surprise that many of the biggest 2017 construction trends revolve around new technologies that improve and enhance the building design and construction process. To stay ahead of the curve we will post blogs on technology every Tuesday or what we like to call Tech Tuesday.  New technologies are constantly changing the construction landscape. Drones now make it possible to survey and map a site with ease and at a lower cost. Smartphones and tablets make on-the-go communication a breeze. Digital blueprint apps and other software make it possible to map out a project ahead of time like never before.  This article is all about the most significant changes in construction by examining technological trends and how they affect the entire construction sector. These trends fall into four major areas: construction-related design construction equipment and methods automation and expert systems construction management. Here are the most innovative technologies  transforming the construction industry COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN  Nobody can narrate the success story of CAD more than an architect who was in the industry before the software and after the software. Manual drafting of technical drawings has been replaced with the use of computer systems to create, modify, optimize and analyze designs. The CAD system looks at possible issues that may arise, to help reduce errors, and can help to reduce errors, which means less time spend off-schedule and a reduced risk of going off-budget.  More focus on CAD in the subsequent Tech Tuesday articles CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT  The only surefire way to protect drivers from being hurt or killed in an accident is to remove them from the equation. Today, operators may be closer to changing their job title to ‘remote control pilot’ than you think. Royal Truck & Equipment builds driverless trucks that are being used at highway construction sites in Florida. Cat® Command can automate hauling, dozing and drilling. Volvo Construction Equipment is experimenting with autonomous technology in its L120 wheel loader and A25F articulated hauler.  Videos of such will be uploaded every Tuesday meanwhile check out The Fire Fighting Robots AUTOMATION AND EXPERT SYSTEMS Technologies such as laser range-finding and geodetic positioning can be used to pinpoint exact locations, to automate storage areas on the job site, and to set guide tracks for remotely operated vehicles. These technologies will gradually be integrated into a coherent system for the highly automated control of certain job site activities. Automation in the construction sector is usually seen in terms of robotics, and the development and application of robotic systems in all industry sectors are relatively new. CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Construction management software has changed a lot over the years, especially since the growth and development of the internet. New versions help not only to increase productivity, but also to track progress and organize the entire construction team. It can be used for billing and as a time clock as well. The process of planning, scheduling, and cost control is addressed through these interfaces.  Well, that's just the introductory session of our Tech Tuesday articles. For this and more similar articles be sure to check us out next Tuesday, Other technologies, such as Building Information Management, prefabrication, big data and much more surprises to be featured in subsequent articles       
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