Top 5 Construction Trends in 2018.

The year, 2018, I made a resolution, a resolution to keep construction web readers always updated and informed in the construction world.

You might as well bookmark this site,

Did someone ask why?

Well, brace yourself for 365 blog posts. 

Check out my new year resolution here 


Construction Web In 2018


So without much ado let’s get down to business, wait, I mean construction trends,

In 1900, craftsmen with varying levels of skill manufactured carts one at a time. Even the best of these carts provided little more than basic transportation. Yet in at the same time, master masons and builders created incredible stone houses using principles of design and construction that were breathtaking for the time. 

Today the technologies of both manufacturing and construction have changed, but not nearly to the same degree.

For many reasons, that I won’t state, the basic construction process of building stick by stick, piece by piece, has remained unchanged since the Middle Ages whereas in Manufacturing miracles are happening.

It is now the 21st century that we are seeing technological breakthroughs which set new waves in productivity.

So I decided to put together an article that outlines the emerging trends to look out for in the year 2018! 


IN SUMMARY

  1. Building Information Modelling
  2. Virtual  and Augmented realities 
  3. Modular and prefab houses 
  4. Green construction 
  5. Project management software

 

1 Building Information Model (BIM)

Building Information Modelling is a process that gives construction professionals the insight and tools to efficiently plan, design, construct, operate and maintain diverse physical infrastructures, such as water, refuse, electricity, gas, communication utilities, roads, bridges, ports, tunnels, etc.

 Benefits to the construction industry already have been significant in several respects, thanks to BIM features like the collaboration features, conflict resolution features. The features reduce interferences, which are instances where the design of separate systems, such as electrical conduit and high-voltage alternating current ducting, compete for the same physical space. 

So it’s clear that there is going to be less resistance with adapting BIM in construction projects. In fact, with favourable responses on previous years, we might see more advancements with BIM in 2018.

 

EDITORS PICK 

KIEFER TECHNIC SHOWROOM

2 Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality 

While the construction industry has been notoriously slow to jump into the technology revolution, soon companies will have no choice.  Another big thing to look out for is an increase in virtual and augmented reality use. This type of technology is changing the entire industry, Its biggest benefit is the ability to provide virtual walkthroughs in order to sell property and  

Preparing workers to operate the necessary machinery through simulation is a very effective method. VR enables easy communication and collaboration on site. 

.3 Green Construction 

Environmental sustainability has become a hot topic of discussion in the last few years and is expected to raise more dust. In 2018, a focus on ecological benefits will remain a trend throughout the industry as well as an increased emphasis on the financial benefits. Expect to see increasingly green business models! 

ALSO, READ 

SMART FLOWER SOLAR PANELS 

SMART HOUSES

4.modular and prefabrication construction projects

In 2017, modular and prefabrication construction has become an increasingly popular trend due to its cost-effectiveness and energy efficiency. Modular and prefabrication construction will continue to be an attractive option in 2018. Expect to see a lot more pop-ups and permanent modular buildings, as well as prefab houses this year!

However, the basic building blocks of construction—steel and concrete—are expected to remain relatively unchanged. Specific qualities of these materials will be improved, but no major substitute material is on the horizon. 

EDITORS PICK 

MOVABLE MINIMALIST HOUSE

 5 Project Management Softwares

In job sites of the past, the first tools unpacked were the shovels. Today, the first things out of the box are often computers. Terminals and graphics workstation, These computers provide communications links with the engineering office, the client, and relevant vendors or fabricators.

The software also provides the construction industry with three fundamental advantages: Efficiency, Transparency and Accountability. The latest software provides real-time communication, project overview, trackability and integrations with other software, therefore, a  system of controls optimize the design, procurement, and construction process. 

Most importantly, Expect Construction web 2.0

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DAMPNESS IN BUILDINGS

 

Structural dampness is the presence of unwanted moisture in the structure of a building, either the result of intrusion from outside or condensation from within the structure.

Causes of dampness in buildings

  1. Rain penetration
  2. Level of site
  3. Drain ability of soil
  4. climate condition
  5. Defective orientation of building
  6. Moisture entrapped during construction
  7. Defective construction e.g. joints

A wide range of instruments and techniques can be used to investigate the presence of moisture in building materials.

The competence and experience of the person undertaking the damp investigations is often of greater importance than the kit he or she carries.


             EDITORS PICK:

               Quality Of Sand 

                           Why Buildings collapse

                       Fire Fighting Robots

                            Intercontinental China 


The Survey

It is essential when investigating the potential for rising dampness to eliminate other sources of water ingress. Care must be taken to eliminate other potential sources of moisture, especially condensation in the colder months, and it is, therefore, essential to ensure that a full investigation is always undertaken. If any other sources are identified then these must be first eliminated before a proper assessment of any rising dampness can be made as it can be very difficult to distinguish between two or more interfering sources of water ingress.

The following gives a guide to on‐site routine procedures for the survey:

Dampness in building materials can be harmful to the structural integrity of buildings. If not treated properly water ingress can damage bricks and mortar, causing cracks in masonry, spalling and chipping. 

Primary Internal Examination (Visible Signs):

  1. Fungal decay in skirting and/or other timbers.
  2. Peeling / blistering wallpaper, peeling / blistering paintwork.
  3. Efflorescence.
  4. Mould growth, staining.
  5. Damp/wet patches, water droplets, water runs.

Different types of dampness need different treatments. It is therefore important to find out exactly which type of dampness is affecting the building, as the wrong treatment can in some circumstances do more harm than good.

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Quality of Sand

Quality of sand is as much of importance as other materials for concrete.

There are some useful tests that can be done in the field for checking the quality of sand utilized for construction. The following tests may be performed to determine the characteristics of sand.

 

1. Organic impurities test – this test is conducted at the field, for every 20 units or part thereof.

2. Silt content test – this is also a field test and to be conducted for every 20 units.

3. Particle size distribution – this test can be conducted at site or in laboratory for every 40 units of sand.

4. Bulking of sand – this test is conducted at site for every 20 units of sand. Based on bulking of sand, suitable water cement ratio is calculated for concrete at site.

But to save on resources and time Field tests are the best and outlined below

FIELD TEST OF SAND:

1. Take a glass and add some water in it.

2. Add a few amount of sand in the glass. At that point, shake it vivaciously and permit it to settle. If there is clay present in the sand, an apparent layer will be formed at the top level of sand.

3. Mix the sand into sodium hydroxide or caustic soda solution to distinguish the presence of organic impurities. If organic impurities are present in the sand, the color of the solution will be turned into brown.

4. Now take a squeeze of sand and taste it. If it is salty that means salt is present in the sand.

5. Take little amount of sand in the hand, and then rub it against the fingers. If the fingers are recolored it means sand consists of some earthy materials.

6. The color of sand describes the cleanness of sand. The size and sharpness might be examined by touching and watching visually.

 7. The sand may be examined by mechanical analysis to know its fineness, durability, void ratio etc.
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Roofing Systems and solutions

I have been arguing with other builders and roof experts which roofing system is the most beautiful, They all have different opinions or rather tastes and preferences. This article is inspired by them!

Here is all you need to know about roofing systems and factors to consider when choosing the type of roofing, but before that

The roof is the covering on the uppermost part of a building or shelter which provides protection from animals and weather, notably rain or snow, but also heat, wind and sunlight. Roofing also denotes the framework that supports that covering.

Roof systems and materials generally are divided into

  1.  Low pitched roofs.
  2. High pitched roofs.

-Low pitched roofing includes water impermeable, or weatherproof, types of roof membranes installed on slopes less than or equal to  15°

-High pitched roofing includes water shedding types of roof coverings installed on slopes exceeding  15°

TYPES OF PITCHED ROOFS

Gabled roofing 

The roof slopes around a triangular extension of the end wall. This piece of wall is the gable. 
 
Hipped  Roofing
A  hipped roof, is a type of roof where all sides slope downwards to the walls, usually with a fairly gentle slope. Thus a hipped roof house has no gables or other vertical sides to the roof. 
A square hip roof is shaped like a pyramid.
Shed -ROOFING 
This simple roof has only one slope. It is commonly used on lean-to structures, such as additions. 
Mansard
A modified version of the pitched roof that creates a spacious living area in the roof space. a four-sided gambrel-style hip roof characterized by two slopes on each of its sides with the lower slope, punctured by dormer windows, at a steeper angle than the upper 

 

Low-pitched  roofing 
There are five types of low slope roof membranes or systems. 

  • Built-up roof (BUR) membranes
  • Metal panel roof systems for low-slope applications
  • Polymer-modified bitumen sheet membranes
  • Single-ply membranes
    • Thermoplastic membranes (e.g., PVC, TPO)
    • Thermoset membranes (e.g., EPDM)
  • Spray polyurethane foam-based (SPF) roof systems

Most low-pitched roof membranes have three principal components:

  • Weatherproofing layer or layers — the weatherproofing component is the most important element because it keeps water from entering a roof assembly.
  • Reinforcement — reinforcement adds strength, puncture resistance and dimensional stability to a membrane.
  • Surfacing — surfacing is the component that protects the weatherproofing and reinforcement from sunlight and weather. Some surfacings provide other benefits such as increased fire resistance, improved traffic and hail resistance, and increased solar reflectivity.

With some roof membranes, a component may perform more than one function.

High pitched 

There are divisions of high pitched roof coverings.

  • Asphalt shingles
  • Clay tile and concrete tile
  • Metal roof systems for steep-slope applications
  • Slate
  • Wood shakes and wood shingles
  • Synthetic

Steep-slope roof systems typically are composed of individual pieces or components installed in shingle fashion. Steep-slope roof assemblies typically consist of three primary parts:

  • Roof deck — a roof deck is the structural substrate and usually is a wood-based material such as plywood or oriented strand board (OSB).
  • Underlayment — underlayment provides temporary protection until a roof covering is installed and provides a secondary weatherproofing barrier. Sometimes underlayment is referred to as “felt” or “paper.”
  • Roof covering — the roof covering is the external water shedding material.
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WHY BUILDINGS COLLAPSE IN KENYA !

Greedy investors coupled up with the swelling population in urban towns give way to collapsing buildings.

I feel you are a bit confused, but here are my two cents on collapsing buildings in Kenya.

For the past few decades, Africans have been moving from rural areas into cities, seeking work and schooling so the continent’s urban population has skyrocketed. Nairobi is a prime example of that migration, with its population pushing upward and its boundaries pushing outward. Kisii, Nakuru, Kisumu, Mombasa and Eldoret depict the same global trend in high relief.

While such migration often mirrors economic advancement, it also presents socioeconomic and environmental challenges. Rapid urban growth strains existing infrastructure, as a result, the construction industry is greatly affected.

Investors pump in money in high-rise apartments to accommodate students and job seekers. This means developers are maximally using land as they seek to reap big from their investments.

Because of the high housing demand, contractors routinely flout building codes to either build more houses and earn quick cash or they quote so low in their Bill of quantities and end up building substandard houses.

So I thought we should zero in the main reasons why buildings are collapsing and how to address the issue.

The residential building that collapsed in Kware, Embakasi early this year, photo by Ouma wanzala

1. Weak Foundation 

The foundations of the building transfer the weight of the building to the ground, they are the footholds of buildings and therefore need to be strong enough to support the subsequent load. While ‘foundation’ is a general word, normally, every building has a number of individual foundations.  Most buildings have some kind of foundation structure directly below every major column, so as to transfer the column loads directly to the ground.

Adequate foundations are usually costly and depending on the strength of the soil and the expected load of the building, they can contribute up to half of the entire cost of the building. It is for this reason that contractors take shortcuts and build apartments on swampy areas.

Some developers, however, want to save money when building on weak grounds by cutting on concrete and reinforcements resulting in the collapse of buildings.

A six-storey building that collapsed in Huruma, Nairobi, on April 29 last year is a good example of this kind of negligence.

The building, which was put up next to a river, collapsed after a heavy downpour killing 51 occupants and injuring more than 100 people.

Although the building may have had a sound design and structure, the ground beneath it was incapable of carrying its load and it had to collapse.

It is evident that pre-construction surveys were not carried out, the soil mechanics was neglected!


2. Counterfeit Building Materials  

We all know Kenya is ranked among the largest markets for fake products in Africa, with the construction boom in Kenya it has created a huge market for building materials, and rogue traders are taking advantage of this demand to introduce fakes into the local market.

From non-certified steel to pipes and low-quality fittings, the market is now flooded with fake “cheap” products

Most of these materials are weak therefore unable to support a building.

While some contractors might be duped by counterfeiters with fake authentication certificates into buying substandard materials, some individuals use these goods knowingly to cut costs.

The products are mainly sourced from China, Dubai, Japan, Korea, Thailand and India. To be on the safe side insist on locally manufactured products.

By the way, KRA has unveiled a smart phone application which can be used to verify authentic products in the war against counterfeits. Advise your builders to embrace this technology to avoid being a victim of collapsed buildings.


3. Poor Structural Design 

There is an aspect of engineering known as Structural integrity and failure which deals with the ability of a structure to support a designed load without breaking and includes the study of past structural failures in order to prevent failures in future designs.

The structural integrity of a building component is the ability of the same component to carry the designed load without breaking or deforming excessively, whereas the structural failure is initiated when a building component loses its integrity.

A structural engineer can make errors in computation and fail to take into account the weight that a structure will be expected to withstand.

The engineer may also follow inaccurate theories and use inaccurate data and make wrong choices of materials during construction of a building. Such an engineer will be responsible for the future collapse of the building.

In a well-designed building,  a localized failure should not cause immediate or even progressive collapse of the entire structure.


4 Unprofessionalism 

Construction management might be challenging and a demanding. In order to successfully complete a project, from the perspective of a Client, the contractor will need the assistance of many construction professionals ( architects, surveyors, soil, electrical, mechanical, structural and civil engineers ) to help them realize their objective, particularly from the feasibility to completion of a project.

These construction professionals have different specialties, for example, an architect will generally manage the design and construction of the project, whereas the structural engineer will ensure that the project is structurally stable, and the quantity surveyor will generally look after the financial aspects of a project.

The services of such professionals come at a cost and in a bid to cut on costs, some developers prefer to hire uncertified jua kali artisans – most of whom are nothing but quacks – which has led to the rising building collapse cases.

Such unskilled labor lacks the technical know-how on building construction requirements such as the ideal standards of structural steel as well as the correct concrete mixing ratios and curing procedures for optimum strength in relation to the expected load of the complete building.

Although the cowboy developers initially think they are saving a lot of money, in the long run when such buildings collapse, it becomes a perfect example of being penny-wise and pound-foolish.


5 Greed for wealth 

In a bid to cash in on the ever-growing demand for housing in urban towns, rogue developers flout building code and regulations to hurriedly put up substandard residential apartments

Some are adding extra floors originally not planned for resulting in heavier load than was planned for in the foundation. This is especially common in the less affluent residential estates where the population is swelling.

The understaffed national construction authority cant inspect all the buildings that are rapidly mushrooming every day across the country, and before you know it

BREAKING NEWS ….A building has collapsed in town A “


6 Corruption 

The delivery of a construction project involves many professional disciplines and tradespeople and numerous contractual relationships that make control measures difficult to implement, The complex transaction chains make it easier for corrupt developers.

The Numerous approvals required from the government in the form of licenses and permits at various stages of the delivery cycle, each one provides an opportunity for bribery.

The government agencies mandated with inspection of buildings to ensure they are safe for human habitation are riddled with corruption and inefficiencies.

For a few thousand shillings, corrupt inspectors are willing to turn a blind eye on malpractices resulting in fatalities and financial loss.

Although there are many reasons as to why a building may collapse, most of the incidents in Kenya seem to be driven by greed for wealth and corruption. In fact, it would be accurate to cite the two as the main real reasons as to why why buildings collapse in Kenya. 


MORE STORIES BELOW

  • Concrete Framed Structures
  • Details on Steel framed structures
  • 21st BUILD EXPO, NAIROBI KENYA
  • Nairobi city and Co-working spaces
  • Top 5 Construction Trends in 2018.
  • Basic requirements of a building
  • Technology in the construction industry
  • DAMPNESS IN BUILDINGS
  • Quality of Sand
  • TYPES OF COLUMNS
  • Roofing Systems and solutions
  • Tips on exterior designing
  • Tips of A perfect kitchen
  • The state of the Real Estates
  • Floating city of Tahiti
  • Tower of the Arabs
  • TESTS ON QUALITY CEMENT
  • Most famous buildings in the world [ part 2]
  • Fire safety and protection systems
  • Most Famous Buildings [ Part 1]

 

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Tips on exterior designing

 

Never underestimate the importance of a first impression! Home exteriors are the very first thing neighbors, visitors and prospective buyers see, so you want your exterior home design to impress. Whether you are considering an exterior remodel to upgrade your curb appeal and resale value, or simply want to enhance your home’s aesthetic and ambiance, choosing the right exterior design for your home is an important undertaking. 

When exploring various exterior ideas, it is important to remember there are different phases with a home exterior makeover. Exterior remodeling is not much different than interiordesign  — both projects require careful consideration of all the components involved. If you’re starting from scratch, browse exterior photos from our Instagram and determine what kind of home exterior design ideas you are drawn to, and which ones would be compatible with your current space. Once that’s decided, consider materials and colors from @crownpaintsplc .

Your overall home and neighborhood style will generally guide these selections, but your personal taste and resale ability should also be taken into consideration. When this phase is complete, you can then move on to researching exterior decorating ideas!

Adding some finishing touches to the facade, like exterior shutters, always guarantees a personalized, lived-in look, whereas something like exterior lighting is both functional and aesthetically pleasing.

Which home exterior design style will work for me?

There is a huge range of exterior designs to choose from — whether you’re a traditionalist, minimalist or trendsetter, there is an architectural style that will work for you.

What exterior house colors and materials should I use?

The materials you end up using for your exterior design are often determined by the overall style of the house. When perusing exterior ideas for more traditional homes, you’ll notice that exteriors are usually comprised of brick and wood shingles, while stone and metal siding are popular contemporary options for more modern homes.

If you’re on a tight budget, vinyl siding is a more affordable option; if money is not an issue, a stone is beautiful but will cost quite a bit more. Although there is some leeway in the materials you use, be sure they accurately reflect your home’s overall style.

If you’re not quite ready for a full-on renovation, there are still several exterior ideas … Simple things like changing up the trim and paint colors will make a noticeable impact — try to pick a neutral primary color, like beige, brown or gray. If you want to stray from the norm with bright accents, try painting your front door or garage door something bright, such as red, green, blue or yellow.  

As you consider various exterior decorating ideas, you’ll notice that less is more; a few decorative elements spice up your home’s architectural style but too many can make your exterior design look cluttered and chaotic. House numbers are a great way to add personality; you can try a unique font or brighter colors for a different look

When the holiday season rolls around, don’t forget about decorations! Landscaping is also key to a well-designed exterior, so choose plants and hardscaping that will play nicely with the decor to provide a welcoming look.

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Floating city of Tahiti

The idea may strike you absurd but imagine moving your house when your neighbour gets annoying, this is what will likely happen in a future upcoming city in the Pacific ocean.

The Pacific Ocean ? I also have questions just like you do  but get it right from us

The world’s first floating city is set to appear in the Pacific Ocean off the island of Tahiti.

The government of French Polynesia has signed a deal with Seasteading Institute to begin construction work in just two years.

It may seem like an illogical plan, by the group, SeaSteading Institute believes semi-independent cities would be the perfect place to try new modes of government and agricultural method. In an MOU signed on January 13, 2017,  The groundbreaking of the pilot project in Tahiti will take up.

The first city would be built on a network of 11 rectangular and five-sided platforms so the city could be rearranged according to its inhabitants’ needs like a floating jigsaw

Floating islands would feature aquaculture farms, health care, medical research facilities, and sustainable energy powerhouses.

It’s envisaged that between 250 and 300 people will call the first floating city home.

French Polynesia, a collection of 118 islands in the southern Pacific, is interested in the project as the area is at risk from rising sea levels.  and surrounding the city is a modular wave-breakers to prevent the city from waves and storms.

Here is a video to watch and share

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Tower of the Arabs

Burj al-Arab (Tower of the Arabs) is a luxury hotel located in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.  It is the third tallest hotel in the world (although 39% of its total height is made up of non-occupiable space). Burj Al Arab is nestled in an artificial island 280 meters away from the beach, Jumeirah beach .

The shape of Burj al Arab was inspired by the sail of the ship to reflect Dubai′s seafaring heritage combined with a modern aspect moving forwards into the future.  The luxury hotel sits on a reclaimed land 280 meters offshore

The client wanted a building that would become an iconic or symbolic statement for Dubai; this is very similar to Sydney with its Opera House, London with Big Ben, or Paris with the Eiffel Tower. It needed to be a building that would become synonymous with the name of the country.

Fletcher Construction from New Zealand was the lead joint venture partner in the initial stages of pre-construction and construction. The hotel was built by South African construction contractor Murray & Roberts and Al Habtoor Engineering.

The building opened in December 1999.

The foundation was created on a reclaimed land by driving 230 concrete piles into the sand, each pile was 40 meters (130 feet ) The reclamation of the land from the sea took 3 years, as engineers created a ground/surface layer of large rocks. To avoid the risk of flooding, perforated concrete blocks were mounted on the bedrock in a honeycomb pattern designed to act as a giant artificial ‘sponge’ and reduce the wave impact. Burj Al-Arab experienced an unusual situation where they had to build the foundation without even connecting it to the bedrock. Engineers designed a foundation that relies on skin friction.

 

The façade is covered with two layers of architectural fabric, separated by 60 cm, in order to filter out excessive heat and sunlight.

Burj Al Arab holds only 28 double-storey floors which accommodate 202 bedroom suites. The smallest suite occupies an area of 169 m2 (1,820 sq ft), the largest covers 780 m2 (8,400 sq ft) . Each of the 202 hotel suites consists of two levels, with a curved façade and balcony on the upper floor. These were prefabricated and installed on site into the concrete structure. To achieve adequate stiffness, giant metal trusses with a triangular section, each measuring 85 m long, were used on the exterior side walls. These have the effect of diagonally bracing the two side trusses and the large concrete ‘mast’. These trusses can expand and contract by up to 5 cm in a day, and to accommodate this a special steering linkage rod had to be designed.

The hotel is also notable for its two distinctive restaurants. Al Muntaha (The Ultimate) is 200 m (660 ft) above the Persian Gulf, a C-section design that projects out at 30 m from each side of the central ‘mast’ column. This is supported by a cantilever extending 27 m (89 ft) from either side of the mast, and a series of 1.6 m thick steel beams that fan out from the column towards the restaurant edges.
The Al Mahara (Oyster) features a large seawater aquarium and is accessed via a simulation of a submarine voyage. The wall of the acrylic glass tank is 18 cm (7.1 in) thick to withstand the water pressure.The atrium is 180 m (590 ft) tall. As one of the most luxurious hotels in the world (the only one to have been given the unofficial commendation of ‘7 stars’ by the media), the interior was designed to be palatial  and eclectic 

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Most famous buildings in the world [ part 2]

Thank you for making it to your number one informative , interesting and constructive construction site Construction web.This article is a continuation of our previous series on the worlds most famous buildings . Missed that ? Worry less Click here 

We hope you get inspired by this blog and travel more this year. Enjoy the read


1.BINOCULARS BUILDING 

The building is located in venice, Los Angeles United states. It was originally designed for an advertising company. In 2001 Google leased 100,000 square feet in order to increase employment presence in Los Angeles.

Google offices in Los Angeles

2. MAURITIUS COMMERCIAL BANK

The Bank is an ellipse which sits on 4 travertine clad pillars themselves resting on championship golf lawns covering the roofs of the service areas, staff canteen and kitchen. This building needs a full article on it’s own. Kindly come back for the full focus on mauritius commercial  bank building.

Mauritius commercial bank building at night

3. GATE TOWER BUILDING 

The 5th, 6th and 7th floors of this 16-story office building is occupied by an express highway – passing right through the building. On the building’s floor information board on the ground floor, the tenants for the three floors are listed as the Hanshin Expressway. You can’t alight there though as the elevator skips from the 4th floor straight to the 8th.

Gate tower building in Osaka Japan

4 RYUGYONG HOTEL 

Construction began in 1987 but was halted in 1992 as North Korea entered a period of economic crisis after the fall of the Soviet Union. After 1992 the building stood topped out, but without any windows or interior fittings. In 2008 construction resumed, and the exterior was completed in 2011. It was planned to open the hotel in 2012, but this did not happen. A partial opening was announced for 2013, but this was also cancelled.As of 2017, the building remains unopened

The Ryugyong tower hotel.


BEL AIR PROPERTY

The house features four levels, 38,000 square feet of interiors, 12 bedrooms, 21 bathrooms, three kitchens, an 85 feet infinity pool with a swim-up bar, a bowling alley, a candy room and a movie theater Upstairs, the home features an indoor-outdoor modern kitchen with a waterfall, a giant $1 million art installation of a Leica camera and a $2 million winding staircase.

Bel Air house
bel air house

6.KIEFER TECHNIC SHOWROOM

The Kiefer technic showroom is located in Austria. The showroom changes changes its shape to regulate the interior temperature. Read more about it Click here to read more about Kiefer technic showroom .

kiefer technic showroom

7. SANTA MONICA CIVIC CENTRE

This 300,000-square-foot structure is a parking garage, the building showcases a successful effort at saving energy and protecting the environment . Along with 900 spaces for traditional cars, the garage reserves 14 spots for electric vehicles and has storage for bicycle  The building is powered by solar panels which double as shades for cars on the roof.

Santa monica civic centre

8. FIRST WORLD HOTEL AND PLAZA

Located in Malaysia , First World Hotel & Plaza is the largest hotel in the world. Also known as Genting Highlands it comprises of two colourful tower blocks that house slightly over 7000 budget rooms overlooking the outdoor theme park at Genting Highlands. Extremely popular among visitors by virtue of having the cheapest rates, the hotel sits above the First World Plaza shopping center. It boasts of accommodating more than 33.5 million visitors since 2006.

First world hotel and themed park

9. CROSS TOWERS IN SEOUL KOREA 

The 21 000 square metres site is positioned next to the existing urban fabric in the future development zones of the Yongsan master plan. BIG’s design includes two elegant towers with a height of 214 and 204m. To meet the height requirements of the site, the exceeding building mass is transformed into an upper and lower horizontal bar, which bridge the two towers at 140m and 70 m height. The two towers are additionally connected through the arrival bar at the ground level – and a courtyard below ground.

biggest residential building in seoul korea

10. THE TWA FLIGHT CENTRE 

The TWA Flight Center was “designed before the age of computers and decades ahead of its time. The building uses concrete and glass to capture all of the excitement,  “At every view and every angle, there is something new to admire. 50 years after it opened, it somehow manages to feel like it’s still from the future.”

Twa Flight centre

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Thank you for taking time to read this here are more interesting articles to read 

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  • Tips on exterior designing
  • What is Green Building ?
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  • Buying or building a house ?
  • US 23.1 million dollars, Kenya National Library Complex Set for Completion in 2017
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Fire safety and protection systems

Safari Park Hotel in Nairobi Kenya was on Saturday night razed down by a fire that started from their workshop. The incident drew my attention to fire protection systems that help a great deal when such a mishap occurs.

When a fire occurs injury and death might be due to asphyxiation from poisonous fumes,  burns from direct exposure to the fire, heart attacks because of stress and exertion, the impact resulting from structural collapse, explosions, and falls.

Not only does the life safety and property protection influenced by the design of the structure and its fire protection measure but also, they affected by construction material quality, maintenance and building content.

Balanced design depends on three systems to decrease the danger of death and risk to property as a consequent of fire.

The three systems are a detection system to warn occupants of a fire, a contaminant system to limit or restrict the extent of the fire, and an automatic suppression system to control the fire until it can be extinguished.

These systems of balanced design complement each other by adding fire resistance feature which is not offered by other components. Moreover, some balanced design component features are redundant which mean if a certain part is failed the other part will offer fire safety.

In addition, to apply an excellent physical balanced design for fire safety, a perfect education and training program needs to be integrated by the government.

PROTECTION SYSTEMS

  • Automatic detection
  • Automatic suppression
  • Compartmentation
  • Property protection
  • State of the art in designing for fire safety

Automatic Detection of Fire

The first and most important measure against fire, which is slow with smoke but without fire and low heat that does not activate sprinkler head, is an exact early warning.

From life safety point of view, detectors are substantially significant because they warn occupants close to the source of the fire to run away.

To alert fire department, alarm systems could be installed to decline reaction time of firefighters, increase the speed of rescue operation, and restricting the spread of fire and structural damages.

If detectors are fixed at corridors and connected to a central alarm, the evacuation of the whole occupant will be easy and potential injury and death will be reduced. Smoke sensing fire detector is the most usual detector that employed for early warning.

Generally, detectors need to be connected to continuous power supply and should have a battery as a backup for the case where power is failed.Automatic detector location is specified based on general building code requirements. In residential building, detectors should be provided in all sleeping rooms, areas adjacent to sleeping rooms, and on all level of the building including the basement.

The selection of suitable detectors is based on the number of storeys, obstruction rooms, amount of air movement, and other factors.

The installed detectors are vulnerable to various unanticipated malfunctions for example lack of maintenance because of human neglect, faulty of the power supply, and the act of sabotage.

AUTOMATIC SUPPRESSION SYSTEM

The purpose of the automatic sprinkler system (suppression system) is to control the fire at its origin. Despite that fact that residential sprinkler is not produced to extinguish the fire, but it is dependable and influential in limiting the fire source in the room until it can be stopped completely.

the suppression system

The automatic sprinkler can reduce the possibility of flash over that can be the dangerous event. Not only does the fire suppression permits access to building to help occupants out of the dangerous area but also allows the continuation of fire suppression. 

suppression system in the kitchen

 

Compartmentation of Buildings

Compartmentation restricts the spread of fire by dividing the building into compartment areas surrounded by firewalls and by fire rating floors and ceilings. Added to that, the spread of smokes and poisons fumes to adjacent areas of the building is limited by compartments.

Large and destructive fire beyond compartments is avoided by restricting total fuel load increasing the fire.

Not only do compartments provide a safe place for occupants for whom unable to escape such as elderly and handicapped but also safe refuge areas for the long time when the fire are blocked or filled with smokes.

The compartment boundary which is not combustible limit structural damages and substantially decreases the repair time after the fire. Generally, the repair is nonstructural and possibly it involves the replacement of doors, windows, switches, electrical outlet, wiring, heating ducts, and covers of floors, walls, and ceilings.

I would personally recommend the government should enforce a law in building fire resistant commercial houses and schools as well this will save lives in future don’t you think?

 

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