Details on Steel framed structures

This period of July we zero in structures, from wooden framed structures to concrete framed structures pre-engineered buildings and load bearing structures so makes sure to come back for more 
Most steel assembly is done with a type of steel called mild steel. Mild steel is a material that is immensely secure.  Take a circular bar of steel 1 inch / 25mm in diameter. If you were to attach this bar securely to your ceiling you could hang from it 20,000 Kg (which is 20 tons), or any one of the following:

  • 2 and a half African Elephants
  • 1 and a half London City Routemaster Double-Decker Buses 
  • 18 Toyota Vitz  

We urge you to try this at home unless you are coupled.

This immense strength is of great benefit to buildings.  The other important feature of steel framing is its flexibility.  It can bend without cracking, which is another great advantage, as a steel building can flex when it is pushed to one side by say, wind, or an earthquake.  The third component of steel is its plasticity or ductility.  This means that when subjected to great force, it will not suddenly crack like glass, but slowly bend out of shape.  This property allows steel buildings to bend out of shape, or deform, thus giving warning to inhabitants to escape.  Failure in steel frames is not sudden – a steel structure rarely collapses.  Steel in most cases performs far better in an earthquake than most other materials because of these properties.

However, one important property of steel is that it quickly loses its strength in a fire. At 500 degrees Celsius (930 degrees F), mild steel can lose almost half its strength. This is what happened at the collapse of the World Trade Towers in 2001. Therefore, steel in buildings must be protected from fire or high temperature; this is usually done by wrapping it with boards or a spray-on material called fire protection.

 

 PRIME EXAMPLES STEEL FRAME STRUCTURES 

Steel construction is most often used in 

  • High rise buildings because of its strength, low weight, and speed of construction
  • Industrial buildings because of its ability to create large span spaces at low-cost
  • Warehouse buildings for the same reason
  • Residential buildings in a technique called light gauge steel construction
  • Temporary Structures as these are quick to set up and remove

TYPES OF STEEL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

There are several types of steel building construction. Steel construction is also called steel  fabrication.

Conventional Steel Fabrication is when teams of steel fabricators cut members of steel to the correct lengths and then weld them together to make the final structure. This can be done entirely at the construction site, which is labour-intensive, or partially in a workshop, to provide better working conditions and reduce time.

Bolted Steel Construction occurs when steel fabricators produce finished and painted steel components, which are then shipped to the site and simply bolted in place. This is the preferred method of steel construction, as the bulk of the fabrication can be done in workshops, with the right machinery, lighting, and work conditions. The size of the components is governed by the size of the truck or trailer they are shipped in, usually with a max length of 6m (20ft) for normal trucks or 12m (40ft) for long trailers. Since the only work to be done at the site is lifting the steel members into place (with cranes) and bolting, the work at the site is tremendously fast. Pre-engineered buildings are an example of bolted steel construction that is designed, fabricated, shipped and erected by one company to the owner.

Light Gauge Steel Construction is a type of construction that is common for residential and small buildings in North America and parts of Europe. This is similar to wood framed construction, except that light gauge steel members are used in place of wood two-by-fours. Light gauge steel is steel that is in the form of thin (1-3mm) sheets of steel that have been bent into shape to form C-sections or Z-sections.

WEIGHT OF STEEL FRAME STRUCTURES

Consider a single storey building measuring 5 x 8m (16 x 26ft). Let us first construct this in concrete, with four columns at the corners, beams spanning between the columns, and a 150mm (6″) thick concrete slab at the top. Such a structure would weigh about 800 kg/m2, or 32 Tons (32,000 kg) in total. If we build this of steel instead, with a sloping roof covered with corrugated metal sheeting with insulation, this would weigh only about 65 kg/m2. The steel framed building will weigh only 2.6 Tons (2,600 kg). So the concrete building is over 12 times heavier! This is for single storey structures – in multi-storey structures, the difference will be less, as the floors in multi-storey steel buildings are built of concrete slabs for the economy – but the difference is still significant. 

This low weight of steel frame buildings means that they have to be firmly bolted to the foundations to resist wind forces, else they could be blown away like deck umbrellas!

ADVANTAGES OF STEEL STRUCTURES

Steel structures have the following advantages:

  • They are super-quick to build at the site, as a lot of work can be prefaced at the factory.
  • They are flexible, which makes them very good at resisting dynamic (changing) forces such as wind or earthquake forces.
  • A wide range of ready-made structural sections are available, such as I, C, and angle sections
  • They can be made to take any kind of shape and clad with any type of material
  • A wide range of joining methods is available, such as bolting, welding, and riveting

DISADVANTAGES OF STEEL STRUCTURES

Steel structures have the following disadvantages:

  • They lose strength at high temperatures and are susceptible to fire.
  • They are prone to corrosion in humid or marine environments.
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Top 5 Construction Trends in 2018.

The year, 2018, I made a resolution, a resolution to keep construction web readers always updated and informed in the construction world.

You might as well bookmark this site,

Did someone ask why?

Well, brace yourself for 365 blog posts. 

Check out my new year resolution here 


Construction Web In 2018


So without much ado let’s get down to business, wait, I mean construction trends,

In 1900, craftsmen with varying levels of skill manufactured carts one at a time. Even the best of these carts provided little more than basic transportation. Yet in at the same time, master masons and builders created incredible stone houses using principles of design and construction that were breathtaking for the time. 

Today the technologies of both manufacturing and construction have changed, but not nearly to the same degree.

For many reasons, that I won’t state, the basic construction process of building stick by stick, piece by piece, has remained unchanged since the Middle Ages whereas in Manufacturing miracles are happening.

It is now the 21st century that we are seeing technological breakthroughs which set new waves in productivity.

So I decided to put together an article that outlines the emerging trends to look out for in the year 2018! 


IN SUMMARY

  1. Building Information Modelling
  2. Virtual  and Augmented realities 
  3. Modular and prefab houses 
  4. Green construction 
  5. Project management software

 

1 Building Information Model (BIM)

Building Information Modelling is a process that gives construction professionals the insight and tools to efficiently plan, design, construct, operate and maintain diverse physical infrastructures, such as water, refuse, electricity, gas, communication utilities, roads, bridges, ports, tunnels, etc.

 Benefits to the construction industry already have been significant in several respects, thanks to BIM features like the collaboration features, conflict resolution features. The features reduce interferences, which are instances where the design of separate systems, such as electrical conduit and high-voltage alternating current ducting, compete for the same physical space. 

So it’s clear that there is going to be less resistance with adapting BIM in construction projects. In fact, with favourable responses on previous years, we might see more advancements with BIM in 2018.

 

EDITORS PICK 

KIEFER TECHNIC SHOWROOM

2 Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality 

While the construction industry has been notoriously slow to jump into the technology revolution, soon companies will have no choice.  Another big thing to look out for is an increase in virtual and augmented reality use. This type of technology is changing the entire industry, Its biggest benefit is the ability to provide virtual walkthroughs in order to sell property and  

Preparing workers to operate the necessary machinery through simulation is a very effective method. VR enables easy communication and collaboration on site. 

.3 Green Construction 

Environmental sustainability has become a hot topic of discussion in the last few years and is expected to raise more dust. In 2018, a focus on ecological benefits will remain a trend throughout the industry as well as an increased emphasis on the financial benefits. Expect to see increasingly green business models! 

ALSO, READ 

SMART FLOWER SOLAR PANELS 

SMART HOUSES

4.modular and prefabrication construction projects

In 2017, modular and prefabrication construction has become an increasingly popular trend due to its cost-effectiveness and energy efficiency. Modular and prefabrication construction will continue to be an attractive option in 2018. Expect to see a lot more pop-ups and permanent modular buildings, as well as prefab houses this year!

However, the basic building blocks of construction—steel and concrete—are expected to remain relatively unchanged. Specific qualities of these materials will be improved, but no major substitute material is on the horizon. 

EDITORS PICK 

MOVABLE MINIMALIST HOUSE

 5 Project Management Softwares

In job sites of the past, the first tools unpacked were the shovels. Today, the first things out of the box are often computers. Terminals and graphics workstation, These computers provide communications links with the engineering office, the client, and relevant vendors or fabricators.

The software also provides the construction industry with three fundamental advantages: Efficiency, Transparency and Accountability. The latest software provides real-time communication, project overview, trackability and integrations with other software, therefore, a  system of controls optimize the design, procurement, and construction process. 

Most importantly, Expect Construction web 2.0

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TYPES OF COLUMNS

Hey, Thank you for making it back to Construction Web   Your number one site on building and construction.

Apparently, The featured image above the structural members is meant to be columns. I personally haven’t seen that type of column before. You probably have the same questions like I do but let us analyze this together.

What is the structural integrity of this types of a column?

Can the columns withstand horizontal forces and vertical forces like wind and floods?

Can the columns withstand all the structural failures?

  • The first is that the column might not be strong and tough enough to support the load, due to either its size, shape, or choice of material.
  • The second type of failure is from fatigue or corrosion, caused by instability in the structure’s geometry, design or material properties.
  • The third type of failure is from the use of defective materials. This type of failure is also unpredictable, since the material may have been improperly manufactured or damaged from prior use.
  • The fourth cause of failure is from lack of consideration of unexpected problems. This type of failure can be caused by events such as vandalism, sabotage, or natural disasters. For instance what if vandals hack the blocks which can be easily done because of the joints?

Also Read:  Why Buildings Collapse
      The State of the Real Estate

A column is a vertical structural member intended to transfer a compressive load. For example, a column might transfer loads from a ceiling, floor or roof slab or from a beam, to a floors or foundations.

Columns effective length should be greater than 3 times Its least lateral dimension.

Primarily, Columns carry  Axial Loads and therefore are designed for compression. Other loads from snow, wind or other horizontal forces can cause bending in the columns. Columns then need to be designed for Axial Load and Bending.

 

Columns can be classified into four types  

  1. Based on Shape
  2. Based on a type of reinforcement
  3. Based on type of loading
  4. Based on slenderness ratio

 

Based on shape   

Columns can be classified according to their cross-sectional shape. Common column shapes include:

  • Rectangular.
  • Square.
  • Circular.
  • Hexagonal
  • Octagonal.
  • Y-shaped column

    Standard gauge railway: Photo credits Nairobi News

In profile, they can be tapered, non-tapered, or ‘barrel’ shaped, their surface can be plain, fluted, twisted, paneled and so on.


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Based on the type of Reinforcement 


Reinforced concrete columns have an embedded steel mesh (known as reinforcement bars ) to provide reinforcement.

The design of reinforcement can be either spiral or tied.

  1. Spiral columns are cylindrical with a continuous helical bar wrapped around the column. This spiral provides support in the transverse direction.
  2. Tied columns have closed lateral ties spaced approximately uniformly across the column. The spacing of the ties is limited in that they must be close enough to prevent failure between them, and far enough apart that they do not interfere with the setting of the concrete.
  3. Composite Columns – When the longitudinal reinforcement is in the form of structural steel section or pipe with or without longitudinal bars, it is called as a composite column.

 



Based on type of loading

Here the columns are classified into three types

Axially loaded Column: –

When the line of action of the compressive force coincides with the center of gravity of the cross-section of the column, it is called axially loaded column.

Eccentrically loaded column (Uniaxial or Biaxial)

When the line of action of compressive force doesn’t coincide with the center of gravity of the cross-section of the column, it is called as the eccentrically loaded column.


Based On Slenderness Ratio 

The slenderness ratio is the effective length of a column in relation to the least radius of gyration of its cross-section. If this ratio is not sufficient then buckling can occur.

Column slenderness is used extensively for finding out the design load as well as in classifying various columns in short/intermediate/long.

Short Column:

If the ratio effective length of the column to the least lateral dimension is less than 12, the column is called as the short column. A short column fails by crushing (pure compression failure).

The length of the column is less than the critical buckling length. Mechanical failure would typically occur due to compression.

Long Column:

If the ratio effective length of the column to the least lateral dimension exceeds 12, it is called as long column. A long column fails by bending or buckling.

If Length of the column is greater than the critical buckling length. Mechanical failure would typically occur due to buckling.

INTERMEDIATE  COLUMN:
  • In between the long and short columns, and its behaviour is dominated by the strength limit of the material.

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Roofing Systems and solutions

I have been arguing with other builders and roof experts which roofing system is the most beautiful, They all have different opinions or rather tastes and preferences. This article is inspired by them!

Here is all you need to know about roofing systems and factors to consider when choosing the type of roofing, but before that

The roof is the covering on the uppermost part of a building or shelter which provides protection from animals and weather, notably rain or snow, but also heat, wind and sunlight. Roofing also denotes the framework that supports that covering.

Roof systems and materials generally are divided into

  1.  Low pitched roofs.
  2. High pitched roofs.

-Low pitched roofing includes water impermeable, or weatherproof, types of roof membranes installed on slopes less than or equal to  15°

-High pitched roofing includes water shedding types of roof coverings installed on slopes exceeding  15°

TYPES OF PITCHED ROOFS

Gabled roofing 

The roof slopes around a triangular extension of the end wall. This piece of wall is the gable. 
 
Hipped  Roofing
A  hipped roof, is a type of roof where all sides slope downwards to the walls, usually with a fairly gentle slope. Thus a hipped roof house has no gables or other vertical sides to the roof. 
A square hip roof is shaped like a pyramid.
Shed -ROOFING 
This simple roof has only one slope. It is commonly used on lean-to structures, such as additions. 
Mansard
A modified version of the pitched roof that creates a spacious living area in the roof space. a four-sided gambrel-style hip roof characterized by two slopes on each of its sides with the lower slope, punctured by dormer windows, at a steeper angle than the upper 

 

Low-pitched  roofing 
There are five types of low slope roof membranes or systems. 

  • Built-up roof (BUR) membranes
  • Metal panel roof systems for low-slope applications
  • Polymer-modified bitumen sheet membranes
  • Single-ply membranes
    • Thermoplastic membranes (e.g., PVC, TPO)
    • Thermoset membranes (e.g., EPDM)
  • Spray polyurethane foam-based (SPF) roof systems

Most low-pitched roof membranes have three principal components:

  • Weatherproofing layer or layers — the weatherproofing component is the most important element because it keeps water from entering a roof assembly.
  • Reinforcement — reinforcement adds strength, puncture resistance and dimensional stability to a membrane.
  • Surfacing — surfacing is the component that protects the weatherproofing and reinforcement from sunlight and weather. Some surfacings provide other benefits such as increased fire resistance, improved traffic and hail resistance, and increased solar reflectivity.

With some roof membranes, a component may perform more than one function.

High pitched 

There are divisions of high pitched roof coverings.

  • Asphalt shingles
  • Clay tile and concrete tile
  • Metal roof systems for steep-slope applications
  • Slate
  • Wood shakes and wood shingles
  • Synthetic

Steep-slope roof systems typically are composed of individual pieces or components installed in shingle fashion. Steep-slope roof assemblies typically consist of three primary parts:

  • Roof deck — a roof deck is the structural substrate and usually is a wood-based material such as plywood or oriented strand board (OSB).
  • Underlayment — underlayment provides temporary protection until a roof covering is installed and provides a secondary weatherproofing barrier. Sometimes underlayment is referred to as “felt” or “paper.”
  • Roof covering — the roof covering is the external water shedding material.
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Tips on exterior designing

 

Never underestimate the importance of a first impression! Home exteriors are the very first thing neighbors, visitors and prospective buyers see, so you want your exterior home design to impress. Whether you are considering an exterior remodel to upgrade your curb appeal and resale value, or simply want to enhance your home’s aesthetic and ambiance, choosing the right exterior design for your home is an important undertaking. 

When exploring various exterior ideas, it is important to remember there are different phases with a home exterior makeover. Exterior remodeling is not much different than interiordesign  — both projects require careful consideration of all the components involved. If you’re starting from scratch, browse exterior photos from our Instagram and determine what kind of home exterior design ideas you are drawn to, and which ones would be compatible with your current space. Once that’s decided, consider materials and colors from @crownpaintsplc .

Your overall home and neighborhood style will generally guide these selections, but your personal taste and resale ability should also be taken into consideration. When this phase is complete, you can then move on to researching exterior decorating ideas!

Adding some finishing touches to the facade, like exterior shutters, always guarantees a personalized, lived-in look, whereas something like exterior lighting is both functional and aesthetically pleasing.

Which home exterior design style will work for me?

There is a huge range of exterior designs to choose from — whether you’re a traditionalist, minimalist or trendsetter, there is an architectural style that will work for you.

What exterior house colors and materials should I use?

The materials you end up using for your exterior design are often determined by the overall style of the house. When perusing exterior ideas for more traditional homes, you’ll notice that exteriors are usually comprised of brick and wood shingles, while stone and metal siding are popular contemporary options for more modern homes.

If you’re on a tight budget, vinyl siding is a more affordable option; if money is not an issue, a stone is beautiful but will cost quite a bit more. Although there is some leeway in the materials you use, be sure they accurately reflect your home’s overall style.

If you’re not quite ready for a full-on renovation, there are still several exterior ideas … Simple things like changing up the trim and paint colors will make a noticeable impact — try to pick a neutral primary color, like beige, brown or gray. If you want to stray from the norm with bright accents, try painting your front door or garage door something bright, such as red, green, blue or yellow.  

As you consider various exterior decorating ideas, you’ll notice that less is more; a few decorative elements spice up your home’s architectural style but too many can make your exterior design look cluttered and chaotic. House numbers are a great way to add personality; you can try a unique font or brighter colors for a different look

When the holiday season rolls around, don’t forget about decorations! Landscaping is also key to a well-designed exterior, so choose plants and hardscaping that will play nicely with the decor to provide a welcoming look.

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Floating city of Tahiti

The idea may strike you absurd but imagine moving your house when your neighbour gets annoying, this is what will likely happen in a future upcoming city in the Pacific ocean.

The Pacific Ocean ? I also have questions just like you do  but get it right from us

The world’s first floating city is set to appear in the Pacific Ocean off the island of Tahiti.

The government of French Polynesia has signed a deal with Seasteading Institute to begin construction work in just two years.

It may seem like an illogical plan, by the group, SeaSteading Institute believes semi-independent cities would be the perfect place to try new modes of government and agricultural method. In an MOU signed on January 13, 2017,  The groundbreaking of the pilot project in Tahiti will take up.

The first city would be built on a network of 11 rectangular and five-sided platforms so the city could be rearranged according to its inhabitants’ needs like a floating jigsaw

Floating islands would feature aquaculture farms, health care, medical research facilities, and sustainable energy powerhouses.

It’s envisaged that between 250 and 300 people will call the first floating city home.

French Polynesia, a collection of 118 islands in the southern Pacific, is interested in the project as the area is at risk from rising sea levels.  and surrounding the city is a modular wave-breakers to prevent the city from waves and storms.

Here is a video to watch and share

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Futuristic Plastic Roads

Plastic roads are roads made either entirely of plastic or of composites of plastic with other materials. Plastic roads are different from standard roads in the respect that standard roads are made from asphalt concrete, which consists of mineral aggregates and asphalt. Currently, there are no records of regular roads made purely of plastic, although In India things are quite different .

The indian Government order in November 2015 has made it mandatory for all road developers in the country to use waste plastic, along with bituminous mixes, for road construction. This is to help overcome the growing problem of plastic waste disposal in India.Plastic composite roads, however, have existed and demonstrate characteristics superior to regular asphalt concrete roads; specifically, they show better wear resistance. The implementation of plastics in roads also opens a new option for recycling post consumer plastics.

Back in India, The plastic composite roads is not an ideal method, since the plastic is not exploited for all of its properties. So far, no large scale,  methodical approach has been employed to build roads entirely of plastics.

Imagine that constructing a road would take days instead of months. That roads would last three times as long. That maintenance and traffic disruption are things of the past. And that cable and piping problems as well as the urban water problem are solved overnight.

This may sound like a scenario in the distant future, but nothing could be further from the truth. An innovative concept proposed by a Dutch company, Volkerwessels, aims to create roads entirely of recycled plastic. Every component of the Plastic Road is being designed to make its application completely circular, with the goal of using recycled plastic as much as possible.

The Plastic Road concept consists of a prefabricated, modular and hollow road structure made from (recycled) plastic. The prefabricated production, the light weight and the modular design of the Plastic Road make construction and maintenance faster, simpler and more efficient compared to traditional road structures

The Plastic Road has a hollow space that can be used to (temporarily) store water, thus preventing flooding during extreme precipitation. The hollow space can also be used for the transit of cables and pipes, thus preventing excavation damages.

Plastic-bitumen composite roads have better wear resistance than standard asphalt concrete roads. They do not absorb water, have better flexibility which results in less rutting and less need for repair. Road surfaces remain smooth, are lower maintenance, and absorb sound better.

Volkerwessels in conjunction with total and KWS  are currently working hard on the business case and is investigating the best way to produce the Plastic Road. The development of a first prototype will start soon. Once the Plastic Road meets all the technical, environmental and safety requirements, a pilot installation will be built to perform practical tests.

The expected lifetime of the Plastic Road is two to three times as long as that of traditional road paving.

The expected construction time of a new road will be reduced by approximately 70%

The Plastic Road is four times as light as a traditional road structure

The Plastic Road is 100% circular and is made from recycled plastic as much as possible.

 

Next time we zero in on Permeable roads  Thank you for reading .

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Most famous buildings in the world [ part 2]

Thank you for making it to your number one informative , interesting and constructive construction site Construction web.This article is a continuation of our previous series on the worlds most famous buildings . Missed that ? Worry less Click here 

We hope you get inspired by this blog and travel more this year. Enjoy the read


1.BINOCULARS BUILDING 

The building is located in venice, Los Angeles United states. It was originally designed for an advertising company. In 2001 Google leased 100,000 square feet in order to increase employment presence in Los Angeles.

Google offices in Los Angeles

2. MAURITIUS COMMERCIAL BANK

The Bank is an ellipse which sits on 4 travertine clad pillars themselves resting on championship golf lawns covering the roofs of the service areas, staff canteen and kitchen. This building needs a full article on it’s own. Kindly come back for the full focus on mauritius commercial  bank building.

Mauritius commercial bank building at night

3. GATE TOWER BUILDING 

The 5th, 6th and 7th floors of this 16-story office building is occupied by an express highway – passing right through the building. On the building’s floor information board on the ground floor, the tenants for the three floors are listed as the Hanshin Expressway. You can’t alight there though as the elevator skips from the 4th floor straight to the 8th.

Gate tower building in Osaka Japan

4 RYUGYONG HOTEL 

Construction began in 1987 but was halted in 1992 as North Korea entered a period of economic crisis after the fall of the Soviet Union. After 1992 the building stood topped out, but without any windows or interior fittings. In 2008 construction resumed, and the exterior was completed in 2011. It was planned to open the hotel in 2012, but this did not happen. A partial opening was announced for 2013, but this was also cancelled.As of 2017, the building remains unopened

The Ryugyong tower hotel.


BEL AIR PROPERTY

The house features four levels, 38,000 square feet of interiors, 12 bedrooms, 21 bathrooms, three kitchens, an 85 feet infinity pool with a swim-up bar, a bowling alley, a candy room and a movie theater Upstairs, the home features an indoor-outdoor modern kitchen with a waterfall, a giant $1 million art installation of a Leica camera and a $2 million winding staircase.

Bel Air house
bel air house

6.KIEFER TECHNIC SHOWROOM

The Kiefer technic showroom is located in Austria. The showroom changes changes its shape to regulate the interior temperature. Read more about it Click here to read more about Kiefer technic showroom .

kiefer technic showroom

7. SANTA MONICA CIVIC CENTRE

This 300,000-square-foot structure is a parking garage, the building showcases a successful effort at saving energy and protecting the environment . Along with 900 spaces for traditional cars, the garage reserves 14 spots for electric vehicles and has storage for bicycle  The building is powered by solar panels which double as shades for cars on the roof.

Santa monica civic centre

8. FIRST WORLD HOTEL AND PLAZA

Located in Malaysia , First World Hotel & Plaza is the largest hotel in the world. Also known as Genting Highlands it comprises of two colourful tower blocks that house slightly over 7000 budget rooms overlooking the outdoor theme park at Genting Highlands. Extremely popular among visitors by virtue of having the cheapest rates, the hotel sits above the First World Plaza shopping center. It boasts of accommodating more than 33.5 million visitors since 2006.

First world hotel and themed park

9. CROSS TOWERS IN SEOUL KOREA 

The 21 000 square metres site is positioned next to the existing urban fabric in the future development zones of the Yongsan master plan. BIG’s design includes two elegant towers with a height of 214 and 204m. To meet the height requirements of the site, the exceeding building mass is transformed into an upper and lower horizontal bar, which bridge the two towers at 140m and 70 m height. The two towers are additionally connected through the arrival bar at the ground level – and a courtyard below ground.

biggest residential building in seoul korea

10. THE TWA FLIGHT CENTRE 

The TWA Flight Center was “designed before the age of computers and decades ahead of its time. The building uses concrete and glass to capture all of the excitement,  “At every view and every angle, there is something new to admire. 50 years after it opened, it somehow manages to feel like it’s still from the future.”

Twa Flight centre

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Thank you for taking time to read this here are more interesting articles to read 

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  • Buying or building a house ?
  • US 23.1 million dollars, Kenya National Library Complex Set for Completion in 2017
  • Bedroom cupboard designs that will inspire you
  • Construction of kenyatta university proposed hostels to break ground soon
  • LIVING TOMORROW IN SMART HOMES
  • Why Kenyans Needs to invest in solar energy
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  • Inside Renovation
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  • House Review
  • Sander
  • The Fire Fighting Robots
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Most Famous Buildings [ Part 1]

Hello, welcome to the best building and construction feed , the construction web. Have you read about Technic showroom  ? Today, March 16th 2017 we focus on the worlds most famous buildings part one, other subsequent similar posts  will be posted every Tuesday night. Enjoy the read , get inspired .

 

01. KANSAS CITY LIBRARY


Originally developed as a commercial and entertainment area in the 1880s, the Library District took its new name in 2003. The exterior wall resembles a book shelf.  The book spines measure 25 feet by 9 feet, and showcases 22 titles reflecting a wide variety of reading interests. Local residents were asked to choose which titles would be represented in the bookshelf hence the name “community bookshelf”

Kansas city library

02 PIANO HOUSE

You  thought you’ve seen it all ? Kansas city library is just a tip of the iceberg. I just stumbled upon one of the most bizarre, yet elegant dwellings — a house shaped like a giant glittering grand piano and a violin. Located in Huainan, China and built in 2007 by architectural students at local university, this is truly, well, captivating. The transparent Violin houses the escalators and the staircase for the main piano building which is currently being used as a showroom for city planners.

piano house by night
piano house front elevation

03 BASKET BUILDING 

The Big Basket building in Ohio USA , was built as the headquarters of the Longaberger Company, an American manufacturer of handcrafted maple wood baskets and other lifestyle products. It is one of the most famous examples of mimetic or novelty architecture, in which buildings are designed to mimic or represent objects associated with their function

Basket it was designed to replicate the company’s best selling product, the Medium Market Basket, but 160 times larger. in ohio USA

 

basket building

04 HABITAT 67

Habitat 67 is an experimental modular housing complex in Montreal, Canada, designed by architect Moshe Safdie as a vision for the future of urban living. The building was created as the showpiece for Expo 67, one of the largest world fairs which was held in Montreal in 1967.

Habitat 67 from montreal

05 THE LOTUS TEMPLE 

The Lotus Temple  in New Delhi consisting of 27 structures resembling petals of the lotus flower that open onto a central hall around 40m high. It has nine sides, nine doors, and can accommodate 2,500 people. It’s surface is made of white marble from Mount Pentelicus in Greece,

lotus temple in New Delhi India

Since its completion in 1986 it has become one of the most visited buildings in the world, attracting over 100 million people.


06 CUBE HOUSES 

Cube house in Rotterdam Netherlands

Cube house is a  series of unusual house design located in Rotterdam, Netherlands. They were conceived and constructed in the 1970s, as a response to the request from town planners for housing to be built on top of a bridge.  Arch. Blom had already built similar houses in the town of Helmand and so chose to repeat the design in Rotterdam.


07 THE LEANING TOWER OF PISA 

The leaning tower of pisa

Foundation failure or rather differential settlement of the tower of Pisa makes it an outstanding building , A tower that was constructed in three centuries – 300 Years. Most famous for its tilt, the tower began to lean during construction after soft ground on one side was unable to properly support the structure’s weight.


08 CAPITAL GATE

One of the tallest buildings in the city, the Capital Gate has been certified by the Guinness Book of World Records as the “world’s furthest leaning man-made tower.” The building leans 18 degrees, four times more than the Leaning Tower of Pisa.

Capital gate in Abu Dhabi -UAE

09 TURNING TORSO

Designed by Santiago Calatrava, the Turning Torso is the tallest residential building in all of Sweden. From the bottom to the top, the building twists a full 90 degrees.

turning torso

10 FALLING WATER 

Falling water was designed and built in 1930s

Falling water is quite possibly the most famous private residence in the world. But why? Well, the unique design makes it look like the house stretches out over a 30ft waterfall, with no solid ground beneath it.


There are a thousand amazing buildings in the world, Here is More of this Most famous buildings in the world [ part 2]

Thank you ladies and gents .

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Types of foundation

Foundations provide support for structures, transferring their load to layers of soil or rock that have sufficient bearing capacity and suitable settlement characteristics.

Foundations are classified into two major categories

  1. shallow foundations
  2. Deep foundations

The words shallow and deep refer to the depth of soil in which the foundation is made. Shallow foundations can be made in depths of as little as 3ft (1m), while deep foundations can be made at depths of 60 – 200ft (20 – 65m).

SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS 

Shallow foundations are also called spread footings or open footings. The ‘open’ refers to the fact that the foundations are made by first excavating all the earth till the bottom of the footing, and then constructing the footing. During the early stages of work, the entire footing is visible to the eye, and is therefore called an open foundation. The idea is that each footing takes the concentrated load of the column and spreads it out over a large area, so that the actual weight on the soil does not exceed the safe bearing capacity of the soil.

Shallows foundations are used when surface soils are sufficiently strong and stiff to support the imposed loads; they are generally unsuitable in weak or highly compressible soils, such as poorly-compacted backfill.

types of shallow foundations 

  • Strip foundations
  • Pad foundations
  • Raft foundations

 

 

pad foundations 

 Pad foundations are also known as individual footings, isolated footings  or single footings.Pad foundations are used to support an individual point load such as a structural column, a group of columns or a framed structure. They may be circular, square or reactangular. They usually consist of a block or slab of uniform thickness, but they may be stepped or haunched if they are required to spread the load from a heavy column. Pad foundations are usually shallow, but deep pad foundations can also be used depending on the ground conditions.The load  from the columns is then transmitted by the pad to the bearing layer of soil or rock below.

Individual footings awaiting concreting of the footing column

 

 

strip foundations 

Strip foundations are used to support a line of loads, either due to a load-bearing wall, or if a line of columns and act as a long strip that supports the weight of an entire wall. These are used where the building loads are carried by entire walls rather than isolated columns, such as in older buildings made of masonry.

strip foundation

 

Raft foundation

Raft Foundations, also called Mat Foundations, are most often used when basements are to be constructed. In a raft, the entire basement floor slab acts as the foundation; the weight of the building is spread evenly over the entire footprint of the building. Raft foundation is used when soil bearing capacity is low.

A raft foundation normally consists of a concrete slab which extends over the entire loaded area. It may be stiffened by ribs or beams incorporated into the foundation.

Raft foundations have the advantage of reducing differential settlements as the concrete slab resists differential movements between loading positions. They are often needed on soft or loose soils with low bearing capacity as they can spread the loads over a larger area.

concrete slab of a raft foundation

 

DEEP FOUNDATIONS

PILE FOUNDATIONS -A pile is basically a long cylinder of a strong material such as concrete that is pushed into the ground so that structures can be supported on top of it.

Pile foundations are used in the following situations:

  • When there is a layer of weak soil at the surface. This layer cannot support the weight of the building, so the loads of the building have to bypass this layer and be transferred to the layer of stronger soil or rock that is below the weak layer.
  • When a building has very heavy, concentrated loads, such as in a high rise structure.

Pile foundations are capable of taking higher loads than spread footings.

There are two types of pile foundations, each of which works in its own way.

  • End bearing piles
  • Friction piles

In end bearing piles, the bottom end of the pile rests on a layer of especially strong soil or rock. The load of the building is transferred through the pile onto the strong layer. In a sense, this pile acts like a column. The key principle is that the bottom end rests on the surface which is the intersection of a weak and strong layer. The load therefore bypasses the weak layer and is safely transferred to the strong layer.

Friction piles work on a different principle. The pile transfers the load of the building to the soil across the full height of the pile, by friction. In other words, the entire surface of the pile, which is cylindrical in shape, works to transfer the forces to the soil.

To visualise how this works, imagine you are pushing a solid metal rod of say 4mm diameter into a tub of frozen ice cream. Once you have pushed it in, it is strong enough to support some load. The greater the embedment depth in the ice cream, the more load it can support. This is very similar to how a friction pile works. In a friction pile, the amount of load a pile can support is directly proportionate to its length.

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