Concrete Framed Structures

CONCRETE FRAMED STRUCTURES


concrete frame is a common form of structure, comprising a network of columns and connecting beams that form the structural ‘skeleton’ of a building. This grid of beams and columns is typically constructed on a concrete foundation and is used to support the building’s floors, roof, walls, cladding and so on.

Beams are the horizontal load-bearing members of the frame. They are classified as either:

Main beams: Transmitting floor and secondary beam loads to the columns; or
Secondary beams: Transmitting floor loads to the main beams.

Columns are the vertical members of the frame and are the building’s primary load-bearing element. They transmit the beam loads down to the foundations. 

LOADS


Structural analysis is a very important part of a design of buildings and other built assets such as bridges and tunnels, as structural loads can cause stress, deformation and displacement that may result in structural problems or even failure.

The building regulations require that structures must be designed and built to be able to withstand all load types that they are likely to face during their life-cycle.

These loads include:

DEAD LOADS 

The downwards forces on the building coming from the weight of the building itself, including the structural elements, walls, facades, and the like.

They are also known as permanent or static loads, they are  predominantly associated with the weight of the structure itself

LIVE LOADS

The downward force on the building coming from the expected weight of the occupants and their possessions, including furniture

DYNAMIC LOADS

these occur commonly in bridges and similar infrastructure and are the loads created by traffic, including braking and accelerating loads.

ENVIRONMENTAL LOADS

Environmental loads may act on a structure as a result of topographic and weather conditions.

  • Wind loads– This is a very important design factor, especially for tall buildings, or buildings with a large surface area

    Burj Khalifa the tallest building on the planet is designed in such a way that it withstands wind loads 
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The roof pitch is designed to withstand snow loads

Snow loads – The shape of a roof is a particularly important factor in the magnitude of the snow load. Snow falling on a flat roof is likely to accumulate, whereas snow is more likely to fall of a steeper the roof pitch

  •  Thermal loads – All materials expand or contract with temperature change and this can exert significant loadson a structure. Expansion joints can be provided at points on long sections of structures such as walls and floors so that elements of the structure are physically separated and can expand without causing structural damage.

 

CLADDING 


Cladding – components that are attached to the concrete frame of a building to form non-structural, external surface. This is as opposed to buildings in which the external surfaces are formed by structural elements, such as masonry walls, or applied surfaces such as render. 

Glass cladding

 

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Whilst cladding is generally attached to the structure of the building, it typically does not contribute to its stability. However, cladding does play a structural role, transferring wind loads, impact loads, snow loads and its own self-weight back to the structural framework.

Since concrete has little tensile strength, it generally needs to be reinforced. Rebar, also known as reinforcement steel (or reinforcing steel), is a steel bar or mesh of steel wires used to strengthen and hold the concrete in tension. To improve the quality of the bond with the concrete, the surface of the rebar is often patterned.

Concrete frames can be precast (manufactured off-site) or cast on site.

PRECAST CONCRETE 


Precast concrete is a form of concrete that is prepared, cast and cured off-site, usually in a controlled factory environment, using reusable moulds. Precast concrete elements can be joined to other elements to form a complete structure. It is typically used for structural components such as; wall panels, beams, columns, floors, staircases, pipes, tunnels, and so on.

Precast concrete frames are typically used for single-storey and low-rise structures. The concrete members transported to the site where a crane then lifts and places them into position to construct the frameImage result for precast concrete

FORMWORK


Concrete members can be formed on site with the use of formwork. This is a temporary mould into which concrete is poured. Traditional formwork is fabricated using timber, but it can also be constructed from steel, glass fibre reinforced plastics and other materials. Shuttering is perhaps the most popular type of formwork and is normally constructed on site using timber and plywood.

SLIP FORMWORK 

Slip form is a method of construction in which concrete is poured into the top of a continuously moving formwork. As the concrete is poured, the formwork is raised vertically at a speed which allows the concrete to harden before it is free from the formwork at the bottom.. 

Slip form is most economical for structures over 7 storeys high such as bridges and towers, as it is the fastest method of construction for vertical reinforced concrete structures, but it can also be used for horizontal structures such as roadways.

 

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Top 5 Construction Trends in 2018.

The year, 2018, I made a resolution, a resolution to keep construction web readers always updated and informed in the construction world.

You might as well bookmark this site,

Did someone ask why?

Well, brace yourself for 365 blog posts. 

Check out my new year resolution here 


Construction Web In 2018


So without much ado let’s get down to business, wait, I mean construction trends,

In 1900, craftsmen with varying levels of skill manufactured carts one at a time. Even the best of these carts provided little more than basic transportation. Yet in at the same time, master masons and builders created incredible stone houses using principles of design and construction that were breathtaking for the time. 

Today the technologies of both manufacturing and construction have changed, but not nearly to the same degree.

For many reasons, that I won’t state, the basic construction process of building stick by stick, piece by piece, has remained unchanged since the Middle Ages whereas in Manufacturing miracles are happening.

It is now the 21st century that we are seeing technological breakthroughs which set new waves in productivity.

So I decided to put together an article that outlines the emerging trends to look out for in the year 2018! 


IN SUMMARY

  1. Building Information Modelling
  2. Virtual  and Augmented realities 
  3. Modular and prefab houses 
  4. Green construction 
  5. Project management software

 

1 Building Information Model (BIM)

Building Information Modelling is a process that gives construction professionals the insight and tools to efficiently plan, design, construct, operate and maintain diverse physical infrastructures, such as water, refuse, electricity, gas, communication utilities, roads, bridges, ports, tunnels, etc.

 Benefits to the construction industry already have been significant in several respects, thanks to BIM features like the collaboration features, conflict resolution features. The features reduce interferences, which are instances where the design of separate systems, such as electrical conduit and high-voltage alternating current ducting, compete for the same physical space. 

So it’s clear that there is going to be less resistance with adapting BIM in construction projects. In fact, with favourable responses on previous years, we might see more advancements with BIM in 2018.

 

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KIEFER TECHNIC SHOWROOM

2 Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality 

While the construction industry has been notoriously slow to jump into the technology revolution, soon companies will have no choice.  Another big thing to look out for is an increase in virtual and augmented reality use. This type of technology is changing the entire industry, Its biggest benefit is the ability to provide virtual walkthroughs in order to sell property and  

Preparing workers to operate the necessary machinery through simulation is a very effective method. VR enables easy communication and collaboration on site. 

.3 Green Construction 

Environmental sustainability has become a hot topic of discussion in the last few years and is expected to raise more dust. In 2018, a focus on ecological benefits will remain a trend throughout the industry as well as an increased emphasis on the financial benefits. Expect to see increasingly green business models! 

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4.modular and prefabrication construction projects

In 2017, modular and prefabrication construction has become an increasingly popular trend due to its cost-effectiveness and energy efficiency. Modular and prefabrication construction will continue to be an attractive option in 2018. Expect to see a lot more pop-ups and permanent modular buildings, as well as prefab houses this year!

However, the basic building blocks of construction—steel and concrete—are expected to remain relatively unchanged. Specific qualities of these materials will be improved, but no major substitute material is on the horizon. 

EDITORS PICK 

MOVABLE MINIMALIST HOUSE

 5 Project Management Softwares

In job sites of the past, the first tools unpacked were the shovels. Today, the first things out of the box are often computers. Terminals and graphics workstation, These computers provide communications links with the engineering office, the client, and relevant vendors or fabricators.

The software also provides the construction industry with three fundamental advantages: Efficiency, Transparency and Accountability. The latest software provides real-time communication, project overview, trackability and integrations with other software, therefore, a  system of controls optimize the design, procurement, and construction process. 

Most importantly, Expect Construction web 2.0

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Basic requirements of a building

Hi Construction savvy,  The year 2017 is and will never come back to your life, You had a rough one? hang on in there 2018 will be interesting to you.  Never give up on your dreams.

 Here at construction web, we have a lot for you, of course, it has to do with building and construction, interior design and generally home decor. 

We have themed blog posts each day of 2018. 

We are coming up with video contents or rather vlogs later into the year 

Weekly Ebooks on home decor 

We ask for your support throughout the year,

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Basic requirements of a building 

1. Strength and Stability: Building should be capable of transferring the expected loads in its life period safely to the ground. Design of various structural components like slabs, beams, walls, columns footings should ensure safety. None of the structural components should buckle, overturn and collapse.

2. Dimensional Stability: Excessive deformation of structural components give a sense of instability and result into a crack in walls, flooring etc. All structural components should be so designed that deflections do not exceed the permissible values specified in the codes.

3. Resistance to Dampness: Dampness in a building is a great nuisance and it may reduce the life of the building. Great care should be taken in planning and in the construction of the building to avoid dampness.

4. Resistance to Fire: Regarding achieving resistance to fire, the basic requirements laid down in the codes are:
(a) the structure should not ignite easily.
(b) building orientation should be such that spread of fire is slow.
(c) In case of fire, there should be means of easy access to vacate building quickly.

5. Heat Insulation: A building should be so oriented and designed that it insulates interior from heat.

6. Sound Insulation: Buildings should be planned against outdoor and indoor noises.

7. Protection from Termite: Buildings should be protected from termites.

8. Durability: Each and every component of the building should be durable.

9. Security against Burglary: This is the basic need the owner of the building expects.

10. Lighting and Ventilation: For healthy and happy living natural light and ventilation are required. Diffused light and good cross ventilation should be available inside the building.

11. Comforts and Conveniences: Various units in the building should be properly grouped and integrated keeping in mind the comfort and convenience of the user.

12. Economy: Economy without sacrificing comfort, convenience & durability is another basic requirement of the building.

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Technology in the construction industry

I am glad you made it to  ConstructionWeb on Tuesday, November 28th, 2017. This is a special Tuesday for us and probably you who is reading this, We are introducing a new segment on the website. The segment dubbed Tech Tuesday will zero in on technology in the construction industry,  Tech applied from conception, implementation and finally to demolition. 

We will focus on tools reviews and giveaway some on our social media channels. 

In today’s technology-driven world, it should come as no surprise that many of the biggest 2017 construction trends revolve around new technologies that improve and enhance the building design and construction process. To stay ahead of the curve we will post blogs on technology every Tuesday or what we like to call Tech Tuesday. 

New technologies are constantly changing the construction landscape. Drones now make it possible to survey and map a site with ease and at a lower cost. Smartphones and tablets make on-the-go communication a breeze. Digital blueprint apps and other software make it possible to map out a project ahead of time like never before. 

This article is all about the most significant changes in construction by examining technological trends and how they affect the entire construction sector. These trends fall into four major areas:

construction-related design

construction equipment and methods

automation and expert systems

construction management.

Here are the most innovative technologies  transforming the construction industry

COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN 

Nobody can narrate the success story of CAD more than an architect who was in the industry before the software and after the software. Manual drafting of technical drawings has been replaced with the use of computer systems to create, modify, optimize and analyze designs.

The CAD system looks at possible issues that may arise, to help reduce errors, and can help to reduce errors, which means less time spend off-schedule and a reduced risk of going off-budget. 

More focus on CAD in the subsequent Tech Tuesday articles

CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 

The only surefire way to protect drivers from being hurt or killed in an accident is to remove them from the equation. Today, operators may be closer to changing their job title to ‘remote control pilot’ than you think.

Royal Truck & Equipment builds driverless trucks that are being used at highway construction sites in FloridaCat® Command can automate hauling, dozing and drillingVolvo Construction Equipment is experimenting with autonomous technology in its L120 wheel loader and A25F articulated hauler. 

Videos of such will be uploaded every Tuesday meanwhile check out The Fire Fighting Robots

AUTOMATION AND EXPERT SYSTEMS

Technologies such as laser range-finding and geodetic positioning can be used to pinpoint exact locations, to automate storage areas on the job site, and to set guide tracks for remotely operated vehicles. These technologies will gradually be integrated into a coherent system for the highly automated control of certain job site activities.

Automation in the construction sector is usually seen in terms of robotics, and the development and application of robotic systems in all industry sectors are relatively new.

CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT

Construction management software has changed a lot over the years, especially since the growth and development of the internet. New versions help not only to increase productivity, but also to track progress and organize the entire construction team. It can be used for billing and as a time clock as well. The process of planning, scheduling, and cost control is addressed through these interfaces. 

Well, that’s just the introductory session of our Tech Tuesday articles. For this and more similar articles be sure to check us out next Tuesday,

Other technologies, such as Building Information Management, prefabrication, big data and much more surprises to be featured in subsequent articles 

 

 

 

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Quality of Sand

Quality of sand is as much of importance as other materials for concrete.

There are some useful tests that can be done in the field for checking the quality of sand utilized for construction. The following tests may be performed to determine the characteristics of sand.

 

1. Organic impurities test – this test is conducted at the field, for every 20 units or part thereof.

2. Silt content test – this is also a field test and to be conducted for every 20 units.

3. Particle size distribution – this test can be conducted at site or in laboratory for every 40 units of sand.

4. Bulking of sand – this test is conducted at site for every 20 units of sand. Based on bulking of sand, suitable water cement ratio is calculated for concrete at site.

But to save on resources and time Field tests are the best and outlined below

FIELD TEST OF SAND:

1. Take a glass and add some water in it.

2. Add a few amount of sand in the glass. At that point, shake it vivaciously and permit it to settle. If there is clay present in the sand, an apparent layer will be formed at the top level of sand.

3. Mix the sand into sodium hydroxide or caustic soda solution to distinguish the presence of organic impurities. If organic impurities are present in the sand, the color of the solution will be turned into brown.

4. Now take a squeeze of sand and taste it. If it is salty that means salt is present in the sand.

5. Take little amount of sand in the hand, and then rub it against the fingers. If the fingers are recolored it means sand consists of some earthy materials.

6. The color of sand describes the cleanness of sand. The size and sharpness might be examined by touching and watching visually.

 7. The sand may be examined by mechanical analysis to know its fineness, durability, void ratio etc.
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TYPES OF COLUMNS

Hey, Thank you for making it back to Construction Web   Your number one site on building and construction.

Apparently, The featured image above the structural members is meant to be columns. I personally haven’t seen that type of column before. You probably have the same questions like I do but let us analyze this together.

What is the structural integrity of this types of a column?

Can the columns withstand horizontal forces and vertical forces like wind and floods?

Can the columns withstand all the structural failures?

  • The first is that the column might not be strong and tough enough to support the load, due to either its size, shape, or choice of material.
  • The second type of failure is from fatigue or corrosion, caused by instability in the structure’s geometry, design or material properties.
  • The third type of failure is from the use of defective materials. This type of failure is also unpredictable, since the material may have been improperly manufactured or damaged from prior use.
  • The fourth cause of failure is from lack of consideration of unexpected problems. This type of failure can be caused by events such as vandalism, sabotage, or natural disasters. For instance what if vandals hack the blocks which can be easily done because of the joints?

Also Read:  Why Buildings Collapse
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A column is a vertical structural member intended to transfer a compressive load. For example, a column might transfer loads from a ceiling, floor or roof slab or from a beam, to a floors or foundations.

Columns effective length should be greater than 3 times Its least lateral dimension.

Primarily, Columns carry  Axial Loads and therefore are designed for compression. Other loads from snow, wind or other horizontal forces can cause bending in the columns. Columns then need to be designed for Axial Load and Bending.

 

Columns can be classified into four types  

  1. Based on Shape
  2. Based on a type of reinforcement
  3. Based on type of loading
  4. Based on slenderness ratio

 

Based on shape   

Columns can be classified according to their cross-sectional shape. Common column shapes include:

  • Rectangular.
  • Square.
  • Circular.
  • Hexagonal
  • Octagonal.
  • Y-shaped column

    Standard gauge railway: Photo credits Nairobi News

In profile, they can be tapered, non-tapered, or ‘barrel’ shaped, their surface can be plain, fluted, twisted, paneled and so on.


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Based on the type of Reinforcement 


Reinforced concrete columns have an embedded steel mesh (known as reinforcement bars ) to provide reinforcement.

The design of reinforcement can be either spiral or tied.

  1. Spiral columns are cylindrical with a continuous helical bar wrapped around the column. This spiral provides support in the transverse direction.
  2. Tied columns have closed lateral ties spaced approximately uniformly across the column. The spacing of the ties is limited in that they must be close enough to prevent failure between them, and far enough apart that they do not interfere with the setting of the concrete.
  3. Composite Columns – When the longitudinal reinforcement is in the form of structural steel section or pipe with or without longitudinal bars, it is called as a composite column.

 



Based on type of loading

Here the columns are classified into three types

Axially loaded Column: –

When the line of action of the compressive force coincides with the center of gravity of the cross-section of the column, it is called axially loaded column.

Eccentrically loaded column (Uniaxial or Biaxial)

When the line of action of compressive force doesn’t coincide with the center of gravity of the cross-section of the column, it is called as the eccentrically loaded column.


Based On Slenderness Ratio 

The slenderness ratio is the effective length of a column in relation to the least radius of gyration of its cross-section. If this ratio is not sufficient then buckling can occur.

Column slenderness is used extensively for finding out the design load as well as in classifying various columns in short/intermediate/long.

Short Column:

If the ratio effective length of the column to the least lateral dimension is less than 12, the column is called as the short column. A short column fails by crushing (pure compression failure).

The length of the column is less than the critical buckling length. Mechanical failure would typically occur due to compression.

Long Column:

If the ratio effective length of the column to the least lateral dimension exceeds 12, it is called as long column. A long column fails by bending or buckling.

If Length of the column is greater than the critical buckling length. Mechanical failure would typically occur due to buckling.

INTERMEDIATE  COLUMN:
  • In between the long and short columns, and its behaviour is dominated by the strength limit of the material.

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Roofing Systems and solutions

I have been arguing with other builders and roof experts which roofing system is the most beautiful, They all have different opinions or rather tastes and preferences. This article is inspired by them!

Here is all you need to know about roofing systems and factors to consider when choosing the type of roofing, but before that

The roof is the covering on the uppermost part of a building or shelter which provides protection from animals and weather, notably rain or snow, but also heat, wind and sunlight. Roofing also denotes the framework that supports that covering.

Roof systems and materials generally are divided into

  1.  Low pitched roofs.
  2. High pitched roofs.

-Low pitched roofing includes water impermeable, or weatherproof, types of roof membranes installed on slopes less than or equal to  15°

-High pitched roofing includes water shedding types of roof coverings installed on slopes exceeding  15°

TYPES OF PITCHED ROOFS

Gabled roofing 

The roof slopes around a triangular extension of the end wall. This piece of wall is the gable. 
 
Hipped  Roofing
A  hipped roof, is a type of roof where all sides slope downwards to the walls, usually with a fairly gentle slope. Thus a hipped roof house has no gables or other vertical sides to the roof. 
A square hip roof is shaped like a pyramid.
Shed -ROOFING 
This simple roof has only one slope. It is commonly used on lean-to structures, such as additions. 
Mansard
A modified version of the pitched roof that creates a spacious living area in the roof space. a four-sided gambrel-style hip roof characterized by two slopes on each of its sides with the lower slope, punctured by dormer windows, at a steeper angle than the upper 

 

Low-pitched  roofing 
There are five types of low slope roof membranes or systems. 

  • Built-up roof (BUR) membranes
  • Metal panel roof systems for low-slope applications
  • Polymer-modified bitumen sheet membranes
  • Single-ply membranes
    • Thermoplastic membranes (e.g., PVC, TPO)
    • Thermoset membranes (e.g., EPDM)
  • Spray polyurethane foam-based (SPF) roof systems

Most low-pitched roof membranes have three principal components:

  • Weatherproofing layer or layers — the weatherproofing component is the most important element because it keeps water from entering a roof assembly.
  • Reinforcement — reinforcement adds strength, puncture resistance and dimensional stability to a membrane.
  • Surfacing — surfacing is the component that protects the weatherproofing and reinforcement from sunlight and weather. Some surfacings provide other benefits such as increased fire resistance, improved traffic and hail resistance, and increased solar reflectivity.

With some roof membranes, a component may perform more than one function.

High pitched 

There are divisions of high pitched roof coverings.

  • Asphalt shingles
  • Clay tile and concrete tile
  • Metal roof systems for steep-slope applications
  • Slate
  • Wood shakes and wood shingles
  • Synthetic

Steep-slope roof systems typically are composed of individual pieces or components installed in shingle fashion. Steep-slope roof assemblies typically consist of three primary parts:

  • Roof deck — a roof deck is the structural substrate and usually is a wood-based material such as plywood or oriented strand board (OSB).
  • Underlayment — underlayment provides temporary protection until a roof covering is installed and provides a secondary weatherproofing barrier. Sometimes underlayment is referred to as “felt” or “paper.”
  • Roof covering — the roof covering is the external water shedding material.
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WHY BUILDINGS COLLAPSE IN KENYA !

Greedy investors coupled up with the swelling population in urban towns give way to collapsing buildings.

I feel you are a bit confused, but here are my two cents on collapsing buildings in Kenya.

For the past few decades, Africans have been moving from rural areas into cities, seeking work and schooling so the continent’s urban population has skyrocketed. Nairobi is a prime example of that migration, with its population pushing upward and its boundaries pushing outward. Kisii, Nakuru, Kisumu, Mombasa and Eldoret depict the same global trend in high relief.

While such migration often mirrors economic advancement, it also presents socioeconomic and environmental challenges. Rapid urban growth strains existing infrastructure, as a result, the construction industry is greatly affected.

Investors pump in money in high-rise apartments to accommodate students and job seekers. This means developers are maximally using land as they seek to reap big from their investments.

Because of the high housing demand, contractors routinely flout building codes to either build more houses and earn quick cash or they quote so low in their Bill of quantities and end up building substandard houses.

So I thought we should zero in the main reasons why buildings are collapsing and how to address the issue.

The residential building that collapsed in Kware, Embakasi early this year, photo by Ouma wanzala

1. Weak Foundation 

The foundations of the building transfer the weight of the building to the ground, they are the footholds of buildings and therefore need to be strong enough to support the subsequent load. While ‘foundation’ is a general word, normally, every building has a number of individual foundations.  Most buildings have some kind of foundation structure directly below every major column, so as to transfer the column loads directly to the ground.

Adequate foundations are usually costly and depending on the strength of the soil and the expected load of the building, they can contribute up to half of the entire cost of the building. It is for this reason that contractors take shortcuts and build apartments on swampy areas.

Some developers, however, want to save money when building on weak grounds by cutting on concrete and reinforcements resulting in the collapse of buildings.

A six-storey building that collapsed in Huruma, Nairobi, on April 29 last year is a good example of this kind of negligence.

The building, which was put up next to a river, collapsed after a heavy downpour killing 51 occupants and injuring more than 100 people.

Although the building may have had a sound design and structure, the ground beneath it was incapable of carrying its load and it had to collapse.

It is evident that pre-construction surveys were not carried out, the soil mechanics was neglected!


2. Counterfeit Building Materials  

We all know Kenya is ranked among the largest markets for fake products in Africa, with the construction boom in Kenya it has created a huge market for building materials, and rogue traders are taking advantage of this demand to introduce fakes into the local market.

From non-certified steel to pipes and low-quality fittings, the market is now flooded with fake “cheap” products

Most of these materials are weak therefore unable to support a building.

While some contractors might be duped by counterfeiters with fake authentication certificates into buying substandard materials, some individuals use these goods knowingly to cut costs.

The products are mainly sourced from China, Dubai, Japan, Korea, Thailand and India. To be on the safe side insist on locally manufactured products.

By the way, KRA has unveiled a smart phone application which can be used to verify authentic products in the war against counterfeits. Advise your builders to embrace this technology to avoid being a victim of collapsed buildings.


3. Poor Structural Design 

There is an aspect of engineering known as Structural integrity and failure which deals with the ability of a structure to support a designed load without breaking and includes the study of past structural failures in order to prevent failures in future designs.

The structural integrity of a building component is the ability of the same component to carry the designed load without breaking or deforming excessively, whereas the structural failure is initiated when a building component loses its integrity.

A structural engineer can make errors in computation and fail to take into account the weight that a structure will be expected to withstand.

The engineer may also follow inaccurate theories and use inaccurate data and make wrong choices of materials during construction of a building. Such an engineer will be responsible for the future collapse of the building.

In a well-designed building,  a localized failure should not cause immediate or even progressive collapse of the entire structure.


4 Unprofessionalism 

Construction management might be challenging and a demanding. In order to successfully complete a project, from the perspective of a Client, the contractor will need the assistance of many construction professionals ( architects, surveyors, soil, electrical, mechanical, structural and civil engineers ) to help them realize their objective, particularly from the feasibility to completion of a project.

These construction professionals have different specialties, for example, an architect will generally manage the design and construction of the project, whereas the structural engineer will ensure that the project is structurally stable, and the quantity surveyor will generally look after the financial aspects of a project.

The services of such professionals come at a cost and in a bid to cut on costs, some developers prefer to hire uncertified jua kali artisans – most of whom are nothing but quacks – which has led to the rising building collapse cases.

Such unskilled labor lacks the technical know-how on building construction requirements such as the ideal standards of structural steel as well as the correct concrete mixing ratios and curing procedures for optimum strength in relation to the expected load of the complete building.

Although the cowboy developers initially think they are saving a lot of money, in the long run when such buildings collapse, it becomes a perfect example of being penny-wise and pound-foolish.


5 Greed for wealth 

In a bid to cash in on the ever-growing demand for housing in urban towns, rogue developers flout building code and regulations to hurriedly put up substandard residential apartments

Some are adding extra floors originally not planned for resulting in heavier load than was planned for in the foundation. This is especially common in the less affluent residential estates where the population is swelling.

The understaffed national construction authority cant inspect all the buildings that are rapidly mushrooming every day across the country, and before you know it

BREAKING NEWS ….A building has collapsed in town A “


6 Corruption 

The delivery of a construction project involves many professional disciplines and tradespeople and numerous contractual relationships that make control measures difficult to implement, The complex transaction chains make it easier for corrupt developers.

The Numerous approvals required from the government in the form of licenses and permits at various stages of the delivery cycle, each one provides an opportunity for bribery.

The government agencies mandated with inspection of buildings to ensure they are safe for human habitation are riddled with corruption and inefficiencies.

For a few thousand shillings, corrupt inspectors are willing to turn a blind eye on malpractices resulting in fatalities and financial loss.

Although there are many reasons as to why a building may collapse, most of the incidents in Kenya seem to be driven by greed for wealth and corruption. In fact, it would be accurate to cite the two as the main real reasons as to why why buildings collapse in Kenya. 


MORE STORIES BELOW

  • Concrete Framed Structures
  • Details on Steel framed structures
  • 21st BUILD EXPO, NAIROBI KENYA
  • Nairobi city and Co-working spaces
  • Top 5 Construction Trends in 2018.
  • Basic requirements of a building
  • Technology in the construction industry
  • DAMPNESS IN BUILDINGS
  • Quality of Sand
  • TYPES OF COLUMNS
  • Roofing Systems and solutions
  • Tips on exterior designing
  • Tips of A perfect kitchen
  • The state of the Real Estates
  • Floating city of Tahiti
  • Tower of the Arabs
  • TESTS ON QUALITY CEMENT
  • Most famous buildings in the world [ part 2]
  • Fire safety and protection systems
  • Most Famous Buildings [ Part 1]

 

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Tips on exterior designing

 

Never underestimate the importance of a first impression! Home exteriors are the very first thing neighbors, visitors and prospective buyers see, so you want your exterior home design to impress. Whether you are considering an exterior remodel to upgrade your curb appeal and resale value, or simply want to enhance your home’s aesthetic and ambiance, choosing the right exterior design for your home is an important undertaking. 

When exploring various exterior ideas, it is important to remember there are different phases with a home exterior makeover. Exterior remodeling is not much different than interiordesign  — both projects require careful consideration of all the components involved. If you’re starting from scratch, browse exterior photos from our Instagram and determine what kind of home exterior design ideas you are drawn to, and which ones would be compatible with your current space. Once that’s decided, consider materials and colors from @crownpaintsplc .

Your overall home and neighborhood style will generally guide these selections, but your personal taste and resale ability should also be taken into consideration. When this phase is complete, you can then move on to researching exterior decorating ideas!

Adding some finishing touches to the facade, like exterior shutters, always guarantees a personalized, lived-in look, whereas something like exterior lighting is both functional and aesthetically pleasing.

Which home exterior design style will work for me?

There is a huge range of exterior designs to choose from — whether you’re a traditionalist, minimalist or trendsetter, there is an architectural style that will work for you.

What exterior house colors and materials should I use?

The materials you end up using for your exterior design are often determined by the overall style of the house. When perusing exterior ideas for more traditional homes, you’ll notice that exteriors are usually comprised of brick and wood shingles, while stone and metal siding are popular contemporary options for more modern homes.

If you’re on a tight budget, vinyl siding is a more affordable option; if money is not an issue, a stone is beautiful but will cost quite a bit more. Although there is some leeway in the materials you use, be sure they accurately reflect your home’s overall style.

If you’re not quite ready for a full-on renovation, there are still several exterior ideas … Simple things like changing up the trim and paint colors will make a noticeable impact — try to pick a neutral primary color, like beige, brown or gray. If you want to stray from the norm with bright accents, try painting your front door or garage door something bright, such as red, green, blue or yellow.  

As you consider various exterior decorating ideas, you’ll notice that less is more; a few decorative elements spice up your home’s architectural style but too many can make your exterior design look cluttered and chaotic. House numbers are a great way to add personality; you can try a unique font or brighter colors for a different look

When the holiday season rolls around, don’t forget about decorations! Landscaping is also key to a well-designed exterior, so choose plants and hardscaping that will play nicely with the decor to provide a welcoming look.

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Floating city of Tahiti

The idea may strike you absurd but imagine moving your house when your neighbour gets annoying, this is what will likely happen in a future upcoming city in the Pacific ocean.

The Pacific Ocean ? I also have questions just like you do  but get it right from us

The world’s first floating city is set to appear in the Pacific Ocean off the island of Tahiti.

The government of French Polynesia has signed a deal with Seasteading Institute to begin construction work in just two years.

It may seem like an illogical plan, by the group, SeaSteading Institute believes semi-independent cities would be the perfect place to try new modes of government and agricultural method. In an MOU signed on January 13, 2017,  The groundbreaking of the pilot project in Tahiti will take up.

The first city would be built on a network of 11 rectangular and five-sided platforms so the city could be rearranged according to its inhabitants’ needs like a floating jigsaw

Floating islands would feature aquaculture farms, health care, medical research facilities, and sustainable energy powerhouses.

It’s envisaged that between 250 and 300 people will call the first floating city home.

French Polynesia, a collection of 118 islands in the southern Pacific, is interested in the project as the area is at risk from rising sea levels.  and surrounding the city is a modular wave-breakers to prevent the city from waves and storms.

Here is a video to watch and share

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