Details on Steel framed structures

This period of July we zero in structures, from wooden framed structures to concrete framed structures pre-engineered buildings and load bearing structures so makes sure to come back for more 
Most steel assembly is done with a type of steel called mild steel. Mild steel is a material that is immensely secure.  Take a circular bar of steel 1 inch / 25mm in diameter. If you were to attach this bar securely to your ceiling you could hang from it 20,000 Kg (which is 20 tons), or any one of the following:

  • 2 and a half African Elephants
  • 1 and a half London City Routemaster Double-Decker Buses 
  • 18 Toyota Vitz  

We urge you to try this at home unless you are coupled.

This immense strength is of great benefit to buildings.  The other important feature of steel framing is its flexibility.  It can bend without cracking, which is another great advantage, as a steel building can flex when it is pushed to one side by say, wind, or an earthquake.  The third component of steel is its plasticity or ductility.  This means that when subjected to great force, it will not suddenly crack like glass, but slowly bend out of shape.  This property allows steel buildings to bend out of shape, or deform, thus giving warning to inhabitants to escape.  Failure in steel frames is not sudden – a steel structure rarely collapses.  Steel in most cases performs far better in an earthquake than most other materials because of these properties.

However, one important property of steel is that it quickly loses its strength in a fire. At 500 degrees Celsius (930 degrees F), mild steel can lose almost half its strength. This is what happened at the collapse of the World Trade Towers in 2001. Therefore, steel in buildings must be protected from fire or high temperature; this is usually done by wrapping it with boards or a spray-on material called fire protection.

 

 PRIME EXAMPLES STEEL FRAME STRUCTURES 

Steel construction is most often used in 

  • High rise buildings because of its strength, low weight, and speed of construction
  • Industrial buildings because of its ability to create large span spaces at low-cost
  • Warehouse buildings for the same reason
  • Residential buildings in a technique called light gauge steel construction
  • Temporary Structures as these are quick to set up and remove

TYPES OF STEEL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

There are several types of steel building construction. Steel construction is also called steel  fabrication.

Conventional Steel Fabrication is when teams of steel fabricators cut members of steel to the correct lengths and then weld them together to make the final structure. This can be done entirely at the construction site, which is labour-intensive, or partially in a workshop, to provide better working conditions and reduce time.

Bolted Steel Construction occurs when steel fabricators produce finished and painted steel components, which are then shipped to the site and simply bolted in place. This is the preferred method of steel construction, as the bulk of the fabrication can be done in workshops, with the right machinery, lighting, and work conditions. The size of the components is governed by the size of the truck or trailer they are shipped in, usually with a max length of 6m (20ft) for normal trucks or 12m (40ft) for long trailers. Since the only work to be done at the site is lifting the steel members into place (with cranes) and bolting, the work at the site is tremendously fast. Pre-engineered buildings are an example of bolted steel construction that is designed, fabricated, shipped and erected by one company to the owner.

Light Gauge Steel Construction is a type of construction that is common for residential and small buildings in North America and parts of Europe. This is similar to wood framed construction, except that light gauge steel members are used in place of wood two-by-fours. Light gauge steel is steel that is in the form of thin (1-3mm) sheets of steel that have been bent into shape to form C-sections or Z-sections.

WEIGHT OF STEEL FRAME STRUCTURES

Consider a single storey building measuring 5 x 8m (16 x 26ft). Let us first construct this in concrete, with four columns at the corners, beams spanning between the columns, and a 150mm (6″) thick concrete slab at the top. Such a structure would weigh about 800 kg/m2, or 32 Tons (32,000 kg) in total. If we build this of steel instead, with a sloping roof covered with corrugated metal sheeting with insulation, this would weigh only about 65 kg/m2. The steel framed building will weigh only 2.6 Tons (2,600 kg). So the concrete building is over 12 times heavier! This is for single storey structures – in multi-storey structures, the difference will be less, as the floors in multi-storey steel buildings are built of concrete slabs for the economy – but the difference is still significant. 

This low weight of steel frame buildings means that they have to be firmly bolted to the foundations to resist wind forces, else they could be blown away like deck umbrellas!

ADVANTAGES OF STEEL STRUCTURES

Steel structures have the following advantages:

  • They are super-quick to build at the site, as a lot of work can be prefaced at the factory.
  • They are flexible, which makes them very good at resisting dynamic (changing) forces such as wind or earthquake forces.
  • A wide range of ready-made structural sections are available, such as I, C, and angle sections
  • They can be made to take any kind of shape and clad with any type of material
  • A wide range of joining methods is available, such as bolting, welding, and riveting

DISADVANTAGES OF STEEL STRUCTURES

Steel structures have the following disadvantages:

  • They lose strength at high temperatures and are susceptible to fire.
  • They are prone to corrosion in humid or marine environments.
Please share this

Interior Wednesday

Interior Wednesdays | January 3, 2018, | @constructionweb

Today, more than ever, the beauty of natural stone is a designer’s favourite choice, architects and homebuilders agree as well.

Natural stone tiles are fast becoming the flooring and walling material of choice.

A stone wall is a great way to add a feature to your home that will make it stand out and unique. It is a great idea to introduce texture and nature inspiration too. Moreover, it is not necessary that you have to build a stone wall in a rustic setting of an interior design.Natural stone is a dynamic and versatile product that can be used in both traditional and contemporary buildings.

Widespread types of stones used in interior design: limestone, sandstone, brick, slate and coral stone.

I have discovered a roundup that features stone walls used in many different ways.

ALSO READ : 

 WINDOW TREATMENT IDEAS

KITCHEN FLOORING TRENDS

CONTEMPORARY KITCHENS

 

STONEWALLED BATHHOUSE 

 

Stonewalled bathhouse

Both stones and plants are creations of nature, so they look great together.

FLOOR TO CEILING FIREPLACE SURROUND 

 

Accentuating seams in contrasting hue will emphasize bold patterns of natural stone. You will get a better effect if stones vary in sizes and shapes.

If your room is not spacious enough, consider decorating only a part of the wall with natural stone in order not to overload an interior. Believe me, even the small part of a stone decorated wall will guarantee the same effect as the full wall.

WELL LIT  NOOKS 

Proper lighting will intensify the wonderful texture of natural stone.

 

Combine natural stones with warming materials like fur, cashmere, fleecy rugs and pillows since stone surface adds a cold feel to the room.

Bring bright-coloured accents in warm shades of yellow, orange and red to make an area look welcoming and cheerful.


Hope these tips will help you create a unique room interior with a welcoming ambience and earthy feel. Would you dare to decorate your walls with natural stones? 

Please share this

Roofing Systems and solutions

I have been arguing with other builders and roof experts which roofing system is the most beautiful, They all have different opinions or rather tastes and preferences. This article is inspired by them!

Here is all you need to know about roofing systems and factors to consider when choosing the type of roofing, but before that

The roof is the covering on the uppermost part of a building or shelter which provides protection from animals and weather, notably rain or snow, but also heat, wind and sunlight. Roofing also denotes the framework that supports that covering.

Roof systems and materials generally are divided into

  1.  Low pitched roofs.
  2. High pitched roofs.

-Low pitched roofing includes water impermeable, or weatherproof, types of roof membranes installed on slopes less than or equal to  15°

-High pitched roofing includes water shedding types of roof coverings installed on slopes exceeding  15°

TYPES OF PITCHED ROOFS

Gabled roofing 

The roof slopes around a triangular extension of the end wall. This piece of wall is the gable. 
 
Hipped  Roofing
A  hipped roof, is a type of roof where all sides slope downwards to the walls, usually with a fairly gentle slope. Thus a hipped roof house has no gables or other vertical sides to the roof. 
A square hip roof is shaped like a pyramid.
Shed -ROOFING 
This simple roof has only one slope. It is commonly used on lean-to structures, such as additions. 
Mansard
A modified version of the pitched roof that creates a spacious living area in the roof space. a four-sided gambrel-style hip roof characterized by two slopes on each of its sides with the lower slope, punctured by dormer windows, at a steeper angle than the upper 

 

Low-pitched  roofing 
There are five types of low slope roof membranes or systems. 

  • Built-up roof (BUR) membranes
  • Metal panel roof systems for low-slope applications
  • Polymer-modified bitumen sheet membranes
  • Single-ply membranes
    • Thermoplastic membranes (e.g., PVC, TPO)
    • Thermoset membranes (e.g., EPDM)
  • Spray polyurethane foam-based (SPF) roof systems

Most low-pitched roof membranes have three principal components:

  • Weatherproofing layer or layers — the weatherproofing component is the most important element because it keeps water from entering a roof assembly.
  • Reinforcement — reinforcement adds strength, puncture resistance and dimensional stability to a membrane.
  • Surfacing — surfacing is the component that protects the weatherproofing and reinforcement from sunlight and weather. Some surfacings provide other benefits such as increased fire resistance, improved traffic and hail resistance, and increased solar reflectivity.

With some roof membranes, a component may perform more than one function.

High pitched 

There are divisions of high pitched roof coverings.

  • Asphalt shingles
  • Clay tile and concrete tile
  • Metal roof systems for steep-slope applications
  • Slate
  • Wood shakes and wood shingles
  • Synthetic

Steep-slope roof systems typically are composed of individual pieces or components installed in shingle fashion. Steep-slope roof assemblies typically consist of three primary parts:

  • Roof deck — a roof deck is the structural substrate and usually is a wood-based material such as plywood or oriented strand board (OSB).
  • Underlayment — underlayment provides temporary protection until a roof covering is installed and provides a secondary weatherproofing barrier. Sometimes underlayment is referred to as “felt” or “paper.”
  • Roof covering — the roof covering is the external water shedding material.
Please share this

Most famous buildings in the world [ part 2]

Thank you for making it to your number one informative , interesting and constructive construction site Construction web.This article is a continuation of our previous series on the worlds most famous buildings . Missed that ? Worry less Click here 

We hope you get inspired by this blog and travel more this year. Enjoy the read


1.BINOCULARS BUILDING 

The building is located in venice, Los Angeles United states. It was originally designed for an advertising company. In 2001 Google leased 100,000 square feet in order to increase employment presence in Los Angeles.

Google offices in Los Angeles

2. MAURITIUS COMMERCIAL BANK

The Bank is an ellipse which sits on 4 travertine clad pillars themselves resting on championship golf lawns covering the roofs of the service areas, staff canteen and kitchen. This building needs a full article on it’s own. Kindly come back for the full focus on mauritius commercial  bank building.

Mauritius commercial bank building at night

3. GATE TOWER BUILDING 

The 5th, 6th and 7th floors of this 16-story office building is occupied by an express highway – passing right through the building. On the building’s floor information board on the ground floor, the tenants for the three floors are listed as the Hanshin Expressway. You can’t alight there though as the elevator skips from the 4th floor straight to the 8th.

Gate tower building in Osaka Japan

4 RYUGYONG HOTEL 

Construction began in 1987 but was halted in 1992 as North Korea entered a period of economic crisis after the fall of the Soviet Union. After 1992 the building stood topped out, but without any windows or interior fittings. In 2008 construction resumed, and the exterior was completed in 2011. It was planned to open the hotel in 2012, but this did not happen. A partial opening was announced for 2013, but this was also cancelled.As of 2017, the building remains unopened

The Ryugyong tower hotel.


BEL AIR PROPERTY

The house features four levels, 38,000 square feet of interiors, 12 bedrooms, 21 bathrooms, three kitchens, an 85 feet infinity pool with a swim-up bar, a bowling alley, a candy room and a movie theater Upstairs, the home features an indoor-outdoor modern kitchen with a waterfall, a giant $1 million art installation of a Leica camera and a $2 million winding staircase.

Bel Air house
bel air house

6.KIEFER TECHNIC SHOWROOM

The Kiefer technic showroom is located in Austria. The showroom changes changes its shape to regulate the interior temperature. Read more about it Click here to read more about Kiefer technic showroom .

kiefer technic showroom

7. SANTA MONICA CIVIC CENTRE

This 300,000-square-foot structure is a parking garage, the building showcases a successful effort at saving energy and protecting the environment . Along with 900 spaces for traditional cars, the garage reserves 14 spots for electric vehicles and has storage for bicycle  The building is powered by solar panels which double as shades for cars on the roof.

Santa monica civic centre

8. FIRST WORLD HOTEL AND PLAZA

Located in Malaysia , First World Hotel & Plaza is the largest hotel in the world. Also known as Genting Highlands it comprises of two colourful tower blocks that house slightly over 7000 budget rooms overlooking the outdoor theme park at Genting Highlands. Extremely popular among visitors by virtue of having the cheapest rates, the hotel sits above the First World Plaza shopping center. It boasts of accommodating more than 33.5 million visitors since 2006.

First world hotel and themed park

9. CROSS TOWERS IN SEOUL KOREA 

The 21 000 square metres site is positioned next to the existing urban fabric in the future development zones of the Yongsan master plan. BIG’s design includes two elegant towers with a height of 214 and 204m. To meet the height requirements of the site, the exceeding building mass is transformed into an upper and lower horizontal bar, which bridge the two towers at 140m and 70 m height. The two towers are additionally connected through the arrival bar at the ground level – and a courtyard below ground.

biggest residential building in seoul korea

10. THE TWA FLIGHT CENTRE 

The TWA Flight Center was “designed before the age of computers and decades ahead of its time. The building uses concrete and glass to capture all of the excitement,  “At every view and every angle, there is something new to admire. 50 years after it opened, it somehow manages to feel like it’s still from the future.”

Twa Flight centre

[huge_it_share]


Thank you for taking time to read this here are more interesting articles to read 

  • Combination Hammer
  • US 23.1 million dollars, Kenya National Library Complex Set for Completion in 2017
  • open concept kitchen ideas and other modular contemporary kitchens
  • Tips on exterior designing
  • What is Green Building ?
  • Zoning restrictions in Runda
  • Buying or building a house ?
  • Bedroom cupboard designs that will inspire you
  • Construction of kenyatta university proposed hostels to break ground soon
  • LIVING TOMORROW IN SMART HOMES
  • Why Kenyans Needs to invest in solar energy
  • TILE INSTALLATION GUIDE
  • TECH TUESDAY ; WALABOT REVIEW
  • Cutting Pliers
  • Movable minimalist house
  • Laminate Flooring
  • World Bank values Dar es Salaam’s real estate $2.7 billion more than Nairobi
  • DAMPNESS IN BUILDINGS
  • Guadalupe Clinic Renovation

Please share this

Most Famous Buildings [ Part 1]

Hello, welcome to the best building and construction feed , the construction web. Have you read about Technic showroom  ? Today, March 16th 2017 we focus on the worlds most famous buildings part one, other subsequent similar posts  will be posted every Tuesday night. Enjoy the read , get inspired .

 

01. KANSAS CITY LIBRARY


Originally developed as a commercial and entertainment area in the 1880s, the Library District took its new name in 2003. The exterior wall resembles a book shelf.  The book spines measure 25 feet by 9 feet, and showcases 22 titles reflecting a wide variety of reading interests. Local residents were asked to choose which titles would be represented in the bookshelf hence the name “community bookshelf”

Kansas city library

02 PIANO HOUSE

You  thought you’ve seen it all ? Kansas city library is just a tip of the iceberg. I just stumbled upon one of the most bizarre, yet elegant dwellings — a house shaped like a giant glittering grand piano and a violin. Located in Huainan, China and built in 2007 by architectural students at local university, this is truly, well, captivating. The transparent Violin houses the escalators and the staircase for the main piano building which is currently being used as a showroom for city planners.

piano house by night
piano house front elevation

03 BASKET BUILDING 

The Big Basket building in Ohio USA , was built as the headquarters of the Longaberger Company, an American manufacturer of handcrafted maple wood baskets and other lifestyle products. It is one of the most famous examples of mimetic or novelty architecture, in which buildings are designed to mimic or represent objects associated with their function

Basket it was designed to replicate the company’s best selling product, the Medium Market Basket, but 160 times larger. in ohio USA

 

basket building

04 HABITAT 67

Habitat 67 is an experimental modular housing complex in Montreal, Canada, designed by architect Moshe Safdie as a vision for the future of urban living. The building was created as the showpiece for Expo 67, one of the largest world fairs which was held in Montreal in 1967.

Habitat 67 from montreal

05 THE LOTUS TEMPLE 

The Lotus Temple  in New Delhi consisting of 27 structures resembling petals of the lotus flower that open onto a central hall around 40m high. It has nine sides, nine doors, and can accommodate 2,500 people. It’s surface is made of white marble from Mount Pentelicus in Greece,

lotus temple in New Delhi India

Since its completion in 1986 it has become one of the most visited buildings in the world, attracting over 100 million people.


06 CUBE HOUSES 

Cube house in Rotterdam Netherlands

Cube house is a  series of unusual house design located in Rotterdam, Netherlands. They were conceived and constructed in the 1970s, as a response to the request from town planners for housing to be built on top of a bridge.  Arch. Blom had already built similar houses in the town of Helmand and so chose to repeat the design in Rotterdam.


07 THE LEANING TOWER OF PISA 

The leaning tower of pisa

Foundation failure or rather differential settlement of the tower of Pisa makes it an outstanding building , A tower that was constructed in three centuries – 300 Years. Most famous for its tilt, the tower began to lean during construction after soft ground on one side was unable to properly support the structure’s weight.


08 CAPITAL GATE

One of the tallest buildings in the city, the Capital Gate has been certified by the Guinness Book of World Records as the “world’s furthest leaning man-made tower.” The building leans 18 degrees, four times more than the Leaning Tower of Pisa.

Capital gate in Abu Dhabi -UAE

09 TURNING TORSO

Designed by Santiago Calatrava, the Turning Torso is the tallest residential building in all of Sweden. From the bottom to the top, the building twists a full 90 degrees.

turning torso

10 FALLING WATER 

Falling water was designed and built in 1930s

Falling water is quite possibly the most famous private residence in the world. But why? Well, the unique design makes it look like the house stretches out over a 30ft waterfall, with no solid ground beneath it.


There are a thousand amazing buildings in the world, Here is More of this Most famous buildings in the world [ part 2]

Thank you ladies and gents .

More Interesting posts

  • Concrete Framed Structures
  • Details on Steel framed structures
  • Quick Furniture Tips
  • CHINESE GHOST TOWN
  • 21st BUILD EXPO, NAIROBI KENYA
  • Container Housing
  • Nairobi city and Co-working spaces
  • House Review
  • TIPS ON EXTERIOR DESIGNS
  • DUPLEX APARTMENTS INTERIOR DESIGN
  • TECH TUESDAY ; WALABOT REVIEW
  • TILE INSTALLATION GUIDE
  • Why Kenyans Needs to invest in solar energy
  • What is Green Building ?
  • Exterior Designs ( Thursdays)
  • Interior Wednesday
  • Top 5 Construction Trends in 2018.
  • Basic requirements of a building
  • Technology in the construction industry
Please share this

The mind blowing Kiefer technic showroom

Never underestimate the importance of a first impression ! They say it is the inside that matters but according to me that is just a misconception.Exteriors are the very first thing neighbors, visitors and prospective buyers see,a commercial building or your home, the same applies.

We’ve come across some incredible building facades in our time, but none quite as showstopping as this one. Introducing Keifer technic showroom  Located in Bad Gleichenberg Austria.

The stainless steel facade are all movable, creating a dynamic and changeable facade that will quickly change anyone’s opinion of solar shading from boring to va va voom. Press play on the video to see some of the facade’s artful configurations. If you wont find this mind blowing I don’t know what will.

Inspired ? We don’t mind if you share this post

Please share this

kitchen flooring trends

Hi guys today we discuss about kitchen flooring , basically the materials used in kitchen floors.

Kitchen flooring might need to be practical and hardwearing, but there’s no need for it to be dull. Natural materials such as stone and hard wood flooring is always a popular choice and lends authenticity to a a kitchen. A 2017 tiles trend is ‘mimica’ porcelains, which re-create the look of natural materials.Mimica porcelain because they mimic natural flooring materials for instance marble,hardwood and stones. So today we’ll be taking a look at the flooring options that best compliment this color scheme. First and foremost, you need to know what TYPE of flooring will work best for your lifestyle. Your choices are tile, hardwood, laminate, vinyl, and specialty materials such as cork. While there are many more flooring options, those are the most prevalent in kitchens today. They each have pros and cons, but your household and lifestyle can help you decide on a good fit.

You want the toughest flooring. ?
You like the look of stone or hardwood ?
You want low maintenance. ?You want slip resistant tiles ?

Mimica porcelain tiles are the best

Porcelain flooring tile, a version of common ceramic tile, is the durability champ. It’s fired at high temperatures that produce an extremely hard, durable, stain-resistant tile that is impervious to moisture.

In fact, it’s so tough it can be used outdoors in virtually any climate. Like common ceramic tile, porcelain tile comes either unglazed or glazed. The unglazed versions take on the color of their clay mixture, so they have naturally earthy tones.

Glazed tiles have a glass-like coating that can be made in virtually any color, and can mimic the look and texture of real stone at a much lower cost than stone.. here are some few examples on mimica porcelain tiles

Please share this

Construction of kenyatta university proposed hostels to break ground soon

 

Kenyatta University popularly known as K.U is on the verge of constructing a ksh 4.8 billion hostel that will see the invention of 6, 000 rooms.

The project is set to be developed by a New York-based private equity firm Africa Integras which confirms that it is now ready to proceed with the project after concluding negotiations with the financiers. The US fund was awarded the deal to lead the public private partnership (PPP) investment in 2014 and signed a contract in mid 2015.

Kenyatta University dean, Mr. Paul Gachanja confirmed the news and said that the erection of the hostels will hopefully commence mid this year.

“We are at the financial close stage for the project and expect to break ground mid this year. We are building it under the build-operate and transfer model where the contractor will manage the property for 20 years and later transfer it to the university,” said Dr Gachanja.

The mega development is projected to sit on a 20 acres piece of land and is expected to house up to 10,000 students and ease some of the housing shortage that the university currently undergoes since many students are seeking accommodation outside the university.

It will comprise of 9,350 undergraduate beds, 500 postgraduate beds and bed sitter units for 150 married students.

Since the US fund is set to undertake the appointment of an architect, a building firm and the hostel operator, they disclosed that it would partner with local firms namely Triad Architects, Broll Kenya Facility Managers and EPCO contractors in the project. International Finance Corporation, the World Bank private lending and advisory arm, was the lead adviser to the university on the project.

Africa Integras is a global investor focusing on developing education infrastructure including classrooms, student hostels, faculty housing and commercial and leisure facilities using the Public private partnership approach.

 

also read kenya national library set for completion this year

Please share this

Types of ceilings

Various types of ceiling are used in building construction. Applications, aesthetics, advantages and disadvantages of these types of ceilings are discussed in this article.

The ceiling of a building form one of the most important structural elements it terms of functionality as well as creativity which in turn bring good aesthetics to the building interior. This document would help you understand ceilings that in turn would help you understand the most suitable options while undertaking either repair or renovation work of our building interior.

The ceiling gains a definition, ” A part of a building which encloses and is exposed overhead in a room, protected shaft or circulation space.”

It helps us to create an enclosure and separation between spaces. They provide perfect lighting in the room by controlling diffusion of light. It also controls the sound around a room by making the room sound proof. It, therefore, stops the passage of sound between the rooms.

Now ceiling also possesses fire resistant properties that would facilitate accommodation of building services such as vents, lighting, sprinkler heads etc. If we have any other services like ducts, pipes, and wiring that are messed up together, that they don’t give a good appearance, it can be concealed by means of ceiling covering.

Types of Ceiling used in Building Construction
Now we will discuss types of ceiling. This would give an idea to decide what would work best for a new building construction as you have many options for the same. The types are:

Exposed Ceilings
Tightly attached ceiling
Interstitial ceilings
Acoustical Ceilings
Radiant Chilled Ceilings
Convective Chilled Ceilings
Suspended Ceilings

1. Exposed Ceilings
As shown in figure-1, this kind of ceiling arrangement would completely expose the structural and mechanical components of the building thus omitting a concept of finished ceiling. This arrangement lacks a discomfort in aesthetics but gains many advantages like the economy, easy maintenance due to ease of access. This also enables the thermal mass of the building to be exposed.

Further, the above-mentioned exposed thermal mass can be exploited by installing heating or cooling elements like chilled beams that will be discussed in the following discussions.


Fig.1. Exposed ceiling example in the interior of an office room

The disadvantage mentioned before of looks can vanish if we design , install roof structures and floor structures properly , leaving it exposed in the space below by means of timber beams or concrete slabs or space trusses. It’s true that the mechanical element arrangement at ceiling level in a well systematic manner would create an attractive aesthetic effect.

2. Tightly Attached Ceiling


Fig.2.Tightly Attached Ceiling

3. Interstitial ceilings
An interstitial space is defined as an intermediate space kept between regular-use floors. It is commonly located in hospitals and laboratory-type buildings to allow space for the mechanical systems of the building.

Laboratory and hospital rooms are easily rearranged throughout their lifecycles and therefore reduce lifecycle cost. This ensures more flexibility in the interiors of the building rooms.

They include a walkway for access with a low height. Mainly employed in buildings that have the following units:

Electrical and communications wiring
Air-conditioning ducts
Oxygen
Chilled water
Vacuum pipe work
Chemical sewer pipe work
Water and waste pipework
Fuel gas lines
Compressed air lines


Fig.3. A picture depicting interstitial space arrangement


Fig.4. A Real Example of Interstitial Ceiling Space Arrangement

The ducts and pipe work occupy some space, which often requires continual maintenance and are subject to frequent change. The main advantage of interstitial ceilings is that they allow for maintenance and updating work, without interruption of activities in the spaces above and below.

4. Acoustical Ceilings
This ceiling is mainly implemented to control sound reverberation in a hall where there is the possibility of large sound propagation to make the hearing comfort zone. The acoustic ceiling material is made from fibrous materials that would absorb sound energy unlike other materials like plaster or gypsum ceilings.

These materials do not reduce transmission of sound between the spaces. They result in a reduction in the amount of sound that reflects into space. Hence it can be used to bring the modify acoustic character of space.

Fig.5. A Real Example of Acoustical Ceiling Arrangement

The performance of the ceiling material in terms of sound absorption can be expressed in terms of noise reduction coefficient (NRC). An NRC of 0.85 means that a ceiling material absorbs 85% o the sound that reaches it, and an almost 15% reflects back to the room.

Most of the acoustical ceilings NRC range from 0.5 to 0.9. This value is found to be 0.10 for plaster and gypsum ceiling board materials.

5. Radiant Chilled Ceilings
Radiant chilled ceilings include a network of chilled water coils in ceiling panels with insulation above. For some systems, pipework may be incorporated into plaster board. But this is found less efficient as plaster is an insulator.

The ceiling surface then cools the occupied space by both radiation and convection, providing temperatures throughout the space and avoids draught. The space requirement for chilled ceilings is found to be less, which may be installed with a depth of just 100mm. For some, a small-bore cooling coils can be embedded in plaster ceiling.

6. Convective Chilled Ceilings
These types of ceilings are a deviation from radiant chilled ceilings, in which the network of chilled water pipes incorporates fins, increasing the proportion of cooling that is provided by convection.

7. Suspended Ceilings
These are secondary ceilings suspended from the structure above (typically a floor or roof slab), creating a void between the underside of the slab and the top of the suspended ceiling. This void can provide a useful space for the sprinklers, distribution of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) services and plumbing and wiring services.

This also provides a display place for the installation of speakers, and smoke detectors, motion detectors, light fittings, wireless, antenna, CCTV, fire and so on. It provides an air ‘plenum’, in which the void itself forms a pressurized ‘duct’ to supply air to or extract it from the taken space below.

Fig.7. Suspended Ceilings

This is the one that contributes to fire-resistance in commercial and residential construction. In the case of a dropped ceiling (the other name of suspended ceiling), the rating is achieved by the entire system, which includes:

· the structure above, from which the ceilings is suspended. This can be a concrete floor or a timber floor
the suspension mechanism
the lowest membrane or dropped ceiling.
Between the structure that the dropped ceiling is suspended from and the dropped membrane, there is frequently some room for mechanical and electrical piping, wiring and ducting to be incorporated.

An independent ceiling can be constructed which has a separate fire-resistance. Such systems must be checked without the benefit of being suspended from a slab above so that it can hold itself up. This type of ceiling would be installed to protect items above from fire.

Please share this