Details on Steel framed structures

This period of July we zero in structures, from wooden framed structures to concrete framed structures pre-engineered buildings and load bearing structures so makes sure to come back for more 
Most steel assembly is done with a type of steel called mild steel. Mild steel is a material that is immensely secure.  Take a circular bar of steel 1 inch / 25mm in diameter. If you were to attach this bar securely to your ceiling you could hang from it 20,000 Kg (which is 20 tons), or any one of the following:

  • 2 and a half African Elephants
  • 1 and a half London City Routemaster Double-Decker Buses 
  • 18 Toyota Vitz  

We urge you to try this at home unless you are coupled.

This immense strength is of great benefit to buildings.  The other important feature of steel framing is its flexibility.  It can bend without cracking, which is another great advantage, as a steel building can flex when it is pushed to one side by say, wind, or an earthquake.  The third component of steel is its plasticity or ductility.  This means that when subjected to great force, it will not suddenly crack like glass, but slowly bend out of shape.  This property allows steel buildings to bend out of shape, or deform, thus giving warning to inhabitants to escape.  Failure in steel frames is not sudden – a steel structure rarely collapses.  Steel in most cases performs far better in an earthquake than most other materials because of these properties.

However, one important property of steel is that it quickly loses its strength in a fire. At 500 degrees Celsius (930 degrees F), mild steel can lose almost half its strength. This is what happened at the collapse of the World Trade Towers in 2001. Therefore, steel in buildings must be protected from fire or high temperature; this is usually done by wrapping it with boards or a spray-on material called fire protection.

 

 PRIME EXAMPLES STEEL FRAME STRUCTURES 

Steel construction is most often used in 

  • High rise buildings because of its strength, low weight, and speed of construction
  • Industrial buildings because of its ability to create large span spaces at low-cost
  • Warehouse buildings for the same reason
  • Residential buildings in a technique called light gauge steel construction
  • Temporary Structures as these are quick to set up and remove

TYPES OF STEEL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

There are several types of steel building construction. Steel construction is also called steel  fabrication.

Conventional Steel Fabrication is when teams of steel fabricators cut members of steel to the correct lengths and then weld them together to make the final structure. This can be done entirely at the construction site, which is labour-intensive, or partially in a workshop, to provide better working conditions and reduce time.

Bolted Steel Construction occurs when steel fabricators produce finished and painted steel components, which are then shipped to the site and simply bolted in place. This is the preferred method of steel construction, as the bulk of the fabrication can be done in workshops, with the right machinery, lighting, and work conditions. The size of the components is governed by the size of the truck or trailer they are shipped in, usually with a max length of 6m (20ft) for normal trucks or 12m (40ft) for long trailers. Since the only work to be done at the site is lifting the steel members into place (with cranes) and bolting, the work at the site is tremendously fast. Pre-engineered buildings are an example of bolted steel construction that is designed, fabricated, shipped and erected by one company to the owner.

Light Gauge Steel Construction is a type of construction that is common for residential and small buildings in North America and parts of Europe. This is similar to wood framed construction, except that light gauge steel members are used in place of wood two-by-fours. Light gauge steel is steel that is in the form of thin (1-3mm) sheets of steel that have been bent into shape to form C-sections or Z-sections.

WEIGHT OF STEEL FRAME STRUCTURES

Consider a single storey building measuring 5 x 8m (16 x 26ft). Let us first construct this in concrete, with four columns at the corners, beams spanning between the columns, and a 150mm (6″) thick concrete slab at the top. Such a structure would weigh about 800 kg/m2, or 32 Tons (32,000 kg) in total. If we build this of steel instead, with a sloping roof covered with corrugated metal sheeting with insulation, this would weigh only about 65 kg/m2. The steel framed building will weigh only 2.6 Tons (2,600 kg). So the concrete building is over 12 times heavier! This is for single storey structures – in multi-storey structures, the difference will be less, as the floors in multi-storey steel buildings are built of concrete slabs for the economy – but the difference is still significant. 

This low weight of steel frame buildings means that they have to be firmly bolted to the foundations to resist wind forces, else they could be blown away like deck umbrellas!

ADVANTAGES OF STEEL STRUCTURES

Steel structures have the following advantages:

  • They are super-quick to build at the site, as a lot of work can be prefaced at the factory.
  • They are flexible, which makes them very good at resisting dynamic (changing) forces such as wind or earthquake forces.
  • A wide range of ready-made structural sections are available, such as I, C, and angle sections
  • They can be made to take any kind of shape and clad with any type of material
  • A wide range of joining methods is available, such as bolting, welding, and riveting

DISADVANTAGES OF STEEL STRUCTURES

Steel structures have the following disadvantages:

  • They lose strength at high temperatures and are susceptible to fire.
  • They are prone to corrosion in humid or marine environments.
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21st BUILD EXPO, NAIROBI KENYA

For the past 21 years, something better has been gracing our construction industry and 2018 is no exception, On 3rd through 5th May, The annual building and construction expo is happening at the Kenyatta international conference centre.

Buildexpo is the most prominent building and construction trade exhibition in Kenya and one of the largest fairs in Africa. Africa, the market of the millennium has been gaining immense attention from global manufacturers and exporters seeking tie-ups with importers in Africa for building products.The Kenya construction trade fair in 2018 featured exhibitors from over 40 countries.

Exhibitions enable you to meet the people that matter to your business in one place, including existing customers, new prospects, suppliers, advisers, investors and key figures in the industry. You can use networking to forge productive relationships with key people. Over time, these contacts can become powerful advocates that support and promote your business, That is enough reason for you not to miss this expo

Few of the brands exhibiting are Apex steel from Kenya,  Carvatorta group from France, Regal equipment limited, Tononoka Group among other prime exhibitors.

See you then

 

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Nairobi city and Co-working spaces

Around 10 years ago coworking spaces began opening up to offer affordable office space solutions to startups and freelancers, but recently much larger tech firms have been jumping in. Companies are now looking for the benefits of locating in these shared office environments. As a result, big media conglomerates and newly crowned tech giants have been moving employees to coworking and incubator spaces.  

Arbor House Business Centre. along Arboretum Road Nairobi

Well, this is Happening all over the world but In The safari Capital Of Africa, Nairobi Coworking spaces are mushrooming all over the city, Beautiful spaces that we will be looking at them soon.

Currently, Large corporations are partnering with coworking spaces to support innovation and idea exchanges. Tech giants such as Verizon, IBM and Microsoft are now testing coworking spaces to be near innovative startups.

The twig Co work at West End towers in Waiyaki way

Corporations are forming partnerships with coworking spaces, thereby making it easier for them to stay on top of technological innovations and top talent. They want to keep an ear to the ground when it comes to potential disruptions in their industry, and they need to closely monitor potential acquisition targets. Renting space in coworking spaces can help them check all of the boxes: Attract top talent, monitor competition, and find acquisition targets. Here are a few examples of partnerships in the past couple of years 

This is the new wave jump on the bandwagon and save big!

 Nairobi’s startup scene is taking off, and community workspaces are revving up its fame as East Africa’s cosmopolitan hub.  These coworking spaces are not the run-of-the-mill startup campuses you would expect to find anywhere else in Africa.

If you are an up-and-coming startup or small business looking to get noticed, there is no better place to make those connections happen.

One trend coming out of coworking spaces, like The Mint Hub ,  The Twig,  AHBC,  Workstyle Africa is integrating incubators into their business development strategies. By offering space and an environment with resources, they are able to cater and retain members who are launching startups.  

The Mint Hub

The demand for shared office coworking spaces is surging in the Nairobi and around the world, with several mega corporates over this past year deciding to jump into the game. So why would you start a business and rent an overpriced office space in town?  

catch you on the next one!  Sharing is caring 

 

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TYPES OF COLUMNS

Hey, Thank you for making it back to Construction Web   Your number one site on building and construction.

Apparently, The featured image above the structural members is meant to be columns. I personally haven’t seen that type of column before. You probably have the same questions like I do but let us analyze this together.

What is the structural integrity of this types of a column?

Can the columns withstand horizontal forces and vertical forces like wind and floods?

Can the columns withstand all the structural failures?

  • The first is that the column might not be strong and tough enough to support the load, due to either its size, shape, or choice of material.
  • The second type of failure is from fatigue or corrosion, caused by instability in the structure’s geometry, design or material properties.
  • The third type of failure is from the use of defective materials. This type of failure is also unpredictable, since the material may have been improperly manufactured or damaged from prior use.
  • The fourth cause of failure is from lack of consideration of unexpected problems. This type of failure can be caused by events such as vandalism, sabotage, or natural disasters. For instance what if vandals hack the blocks which can be easily done because of the joints?

Also Read:  Why Buildings Collapse
      The State of the Real Estate

A column is a vertical structural member intended to transfer a compressive load. For example, a column might transfer loads from a ceiling, floor or roof slab or from a beam, to a floors or foundations.

Columns effective length should be greater than 3 times Its least lateral dimension.

Primarily, Columns carry  Axial Loads and therefore are designed for compression. Other loads from snow, wind or other horizontal forces can cause bending in the columns. Columns then need to be designed for Axial Load and Bending.

 

Columns can be classified into four types  

  1. Based on Shape
  2. Based on a type of reinforcement
  3. Based on type of loading
  4. Based on slenderness ratio

 

Based on shape   

Columns can be classified according to their cross-sectional shape. Common column shapes include:

  • Rectangular.
  • Square.
  • Circular.
  • Hexagonal
  • Octagonal.
  • Y-shaped column

    Standard gauge railway: Photo credits Nairobi News

In profile, they can be tapered, non-tapered, or ‘barrel’ shaped, their surface can be plain, fluted, twisted, paneled and so on.


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Based on the type of Reinforcement 


Reinforced concrete columns have an embedded steel mesh (known as reinforcement bars ) to provide reinforcement.

The design of reinforcement can be either spiral or tied.

  1. Spiral columns are cylindrical with a continuous helical bar wrapped around the column. This spiral provides support in the transverse direction.
  2. Tied columns have closed lateral ties spaced approximately uniformly across the column. The spacing of the ties is limited in that they must be close enough to prevent failure between them, and far enough apart that they do not interfere with the setting of the concrete.
  3. Composite Columns – When the longitudinal reinforcement is in the form of structural steel section or pipe with or without longitudinal bars, it is called as a composite column.

 



Based on type of loading

Here the columns are classified into three types

Axially loaded Column: –

When the line of action of the compressive force coincides with the center of gravity of the cross-section of the column, it is called axially loaded column.

Eccentrically loaded column (Uniaxial or Biaxial)

When the line of action of compressive force doesn’t coincide with the center of gravity of the cross-section of the column, it is called as the eccentrically loaded column.


Based On Slenderness Ratio 

The slenderness ratio is the effective length of a column in relation to the least radius of gyration of its cross-section. If this ratio is not sufficient then buckling can occur.

Column slenderness is used extensively for finding out the design load as well as in classifying various columns in short/intermediate/long.

Short Column:

If the ratio effective length of the column to the least lateral dimension is less than 12, the column is called as the short column. A short column fails by crushing (pure compression failure).

The length of the column is less than the critical buckling length. Mechanical failure would typically occur due to compression.

Long Column:

If the ratio effective length of the column to the least lateral dimension exceeds 12, it is called as long column. A long column fails by bending or buckling.

If Length of the column is greater than the critical buckling length. Mechanical failure would typically occur due to buckling.

INTERMEDIATE  COLUMN:
  • In between the long and short columns, and its behaviour is dominated by the strength limit of the material.

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WHY BUILDINGS COLLAPSE IN KENYA !

Greedy investors coupled up with the swelling population in urban towns give way to collapsing buildings.

I feel you are a bit confused, but here are my two cents on collapsing buildings in Kenya.

For the past few decades, Africans have been moving from rural areas into cities, seeking work and schooling so the continent’s urban population has skyrocketed. Nairobi is a prime example of that migration, with its population pushing upward and its boundaries pushing outward. Kisii, Nakuru, Kisumu, Mombasa and Eldoret depict the same global trend in high relief.

While such migration often mirrors economic advancement, it also presents socioeconomic and environmental challenges. Rapid urban growth strains existing infrastructure, as a result, the construction industry is greatly affected.

Investors pump in money in high-rise apartments to accommodate students and job seekers. This means developers are maximally using land as they seek to reap big from their investments.

Because of the high housing demand, contractors routinely flout building codes to either build more houses and earn quick cash or they quote so low in their Bill of quantities and end up building substandard houses.

So I thought we should zero in the main reasons why buildings are collapsing and how to address the issue.

The residential building that collapsed in Kware, Embakasi early this year, photo by Ouma wanzala

1. Weak Foundation 

The foundations of the building transfer the weight of the building to the ground, they are the footholds of buildings and therefore need to be strong enough to support the subsequent load. While ‘foundation’ is a general word, normally, every building has a number of individual foundations.  Most buildings have some kind of foundation structure directly below every major column, so as to transfer the column loads directly to the ground.

Adequate foundations are usually costly and depending on the strength of the soil and the expected load of the building, they can contribute up to half of the entire cost of the building. It is for this reason that contractors take shortcuts and build apartments on swampy areas.

Some developers, however, want to save money when building on weak grounds by cutting on concrete and reinforcements resulting in the collapse of buildings.

A six-storey building that collapsed in Huruma, Nairobi, on April 29 last year is a good example of this kind of negligence.

The building, which was put up next to a river, collapsed after a heavy downpour killing 51 occupants and injuring more than 100 people.

Although the building may have had a sound design and structure, the ground beneath it was incapable of carrying its load and it had to collapse.

It is evident that pre-construction surveys were not carried out, the soil mechanics was neglected!


2. Counterfeit Building Materials  

We all know Kenya is ranked among the largest markets for fake products in Africa, with the construction boom in Kenya it has created a huge market for building materials, and rogue traders are taking advantage of this demand to introduce fakes into the local market.

From non-certified steel to pipes and low-quality fittings, the market is now flooded with fake “cheap” products

Most of these materials are weak therefore unable to support a building.

While some contractors might be duped by counterfeiters with fake authentication certificates into buying substandard materials, some individuals use these goods knowingly to cut costs.

The products are mainly sourced from China, Dubai, Japan, Korea, Thailand and India. To be on the safe side insist on locally manufactured products.

By the way, KRA has unveiled a smart phone application which can be used to verify authentic products in the war against counterfeits. Advise your builders to embrace this technology to avoid being a victim of collapsed buildings.


3. Poor Structural Design 

There is an aspect of engineering known as Structural integrity and failure which deals with the ability of a structure to support a designed load without breaking and includes the study of past structural failures in order to prevent failures in future designs.

The structural integrity of a building component is the ability of the same component to carry the designed load without breaking or deforming excessively, whereas the structural failure is initiated when a building component loses its integrity.

A structural engineer can make errors in computation and fail to take into account the weight that a structure will be expected to withstand.

The engineer may also follow inaccurate theories and use inaccurate data and make wrong choices of materials during construction of a building. Such an engineer will be responsible for the future collapse of the building.

In a well-designed building,  a localized failure should not cause immediate or even progressive collapse of the entire structure.


4 Unprofessionalism 

Construction management might be challenging and a demanding. In order to successfully complete a project, from the perspective of a Client, the contractor will need the assistance of many construction professionals ( architects, surveyors, soil, electrical, mechanical, structural and civil engineers ) to help them realize their objective, particularly from the feasibility to completion of a project.

These construction professionals have different specialties, for example, an architect will generally manage the design and construction of the project, whereas the structural engineer will ensure that the project is structurally stable, and the quantity surveyor will generally look after the financial aspects of a project.

The services of such professionals come at a cost and in a bid to cut on costs, some developers prefer to hire uncertified jua kali artisans – most of whom are nothing but quacks – which has led to the rising building collapse cases.

Such unskilled labor lacks the technical know-how on building construction requirements such as the ideal standards of structural steel as well as the correct concrete mixing ratios and curing procedures for optimum strength in relation to the expected load of the complete building.

Although the cowboy developers initially think they are saving a lot of money, in the long run when such buildings collapse, it becomes a perfect example of being penny-wise and pound-foolish.


5 Greed for wealth 

In a bid to cash in on the ever-growing demand for housing in urban towns, rogue developers flout building code and regulations to hurriedly put up substandard residential apartments

Some are adding extra floors originally not planned for resulting in heavier load than was planned for in the foundation. This is especially common in the less affluent residential estates where the population is swelling.

The understaffed national construction authority cant inspect all the buildings that are rapidly mushrooming every day across the country, and before you know it

BREAKING NEWS ….A building has collapsed in town A “


6 Corruption 

The delivery of a construction project involves many professional disciplines and tradespeople and numerous contractual relationships that make control measures difficult to implement, The complex transaction chains make it easier for corrupt developers.

The Numerous approvals required from the government in the form of licenses and permits at various stages of the delivery cycle, each one provides an opportunity for bribery.

The government agencies mandated with inspection of buildings to ensure they are safe for human habitation are riddled with corruption and inefficiencies.

For a few thousand shillings, corrupt inspectors are willing to turn a blind eye on malpractices resulting in fatalities and financial loss.

Although there are many reasons as to why a building may collapse, most of the incidents in Kenya seem to be driven by greed for wealth and corruption. In fact, it would be accurate to cite the two as the main real reasons as to why why buildings collapse in Kenya. 


MORE STORIES BELOW

  • Concrete Framed Structures
  • Details on Steel framed structures
  • 21st BUILD EXPO, NAIROBI KENYA
  • Nairobi city and Co-working spaces
  • Top 5 Construction Trends in 2018.
  • Basic requirements of a building
  • Technology in the construction industry
  • DAMPNESS IN BUILDINGS
  • Quality of Sand
  • TYPES OF COLUMNS
  • Roofing Systems and solutions
  • Tips on exterior designing
  • Tips of A perfect kitchen
  • The state of the Real Estates
  • Floating city of Tahiti
  • Tower of the Arabs
  • TESTS ON QUALITY CEMENT
  • Most famous buildings in the world [ part 2]
  • Fire safety and protection systems
  • Most Famous Buildings [ Part 1]

 

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Tips of A perfect kitchen

Hi, guys welcome back to our blog, today we I serve up my top tips and considerations to help you create the perfect kitchen design. Keep reading get familiar 

COLOURED CABINETS 

Don’t be afraid to go for bold colour on your kitchen cabinets – mid- to deep greys, blue tones and even shades of peppermint or sage green make great alternatives. If your walls are white, don’t go for white cupboards too; it’s a missed opportunity to inject a little more personality into your space. Of course, a dark hue is also a lot more forgiving where sticky fingers are concerned! I recommend asking your carpenter to have cabinet doors coated with a satin two-pack painted finish in your favourite shade (they’ll be able to match any colour). This is a very hardy paint finish, ensuring a sleek look which is robust and super easy to wipe clean. 

Colour blocking in the kitchen is great way to bring in colour without being overwhelming. Adding a feature row of contrasting cabinetry in colour or timber grain instantly transforms a plain kitchen into a dual-toned space with depth and unique visual appeal

THE KITCHEN TRIANGLE

The Kitchen Triangle refers to the positioning of the three most important features in any kitchen – the fridge, cooktop and sink.Make sure you have the ‘triangle of efficiency’ in place. Your journey from the countertop workspace, to the stove, and to the sink should not be too big or have obstacles in the way.

The Kitchen Triangle In this U-shaped kitchen, the amount of traffic is minimised and the main w ork zones are kept handy. Other kitchen layouts will always benefit from well-considered placements of fridge, cooker and sink.

You also need to consider things like the placement of windows and doors, ceiling heights, high-traffic areas, as well as making the most of natural light.

 STORAGE AND ACCESSIBILITY 

Storage will usually be a combination of under-bench cabinets, overhead wall cabinets and tall cabinets, with either drawers or doors

items can be put away or stored out of sight, the kitchen will be a much better place to work. Go through all the things you have in your cupboards and then work out where they would best be placed in the new kitchen: oils and spices near the cooktop, baking trays near the oven, platters and chopping boards near the workspace, and access to dinnerware and cutlery away from the work zone so others can assist in setting the table or dishing up.

For difficult corners, there are some amazing pull-out and slide-out options, and tall slide-out pantries work a treat for narrow spaces.

Don’t forget to use the height of your room. Tall cabinets may be hard to get to on a daily basis, but they offer great storage

 BENCHTOPS: 

Benchtops come in a range of looks, from price-conscious laminate to hardwearing man-made stone surfaces in a wide range of colours, textures and widths; from natural stones such as marble and granite, to synthetic surfaces that can offer the look of no joins. Think which one works best for your needs, your overall design and your budget.

KITCHEN APPLIANCES 

Coloured appliances are an ideal way to make a strong design statement, adding contrast, interest and style to the kitchen. I’m a fan of putting my appliances on show and love the appearance of stainless steel, but there are also many options for integrated appliances. Whatever look you go for, spending wisely on quality appliances will make even the smallest and most budget-conscious of kitchens sparkle.

THE SINK 

Sinks come in many forms and differing qualities, so be careful when buying that cheap sink-and-tap deal, as the stainless steel will scratch and tarnish quickly. The double-bowl undermount is the sink of choice, providing two deep bowls with a clean, under-benchtop look. The downside is they have no drain board, but some come with drop-in cutting boards and separate drain boards.

Avoid placing your sink on the island bench, especially if you are a drip-dryer, because a messy island bench makes for a messy looking house. Alternatively, build up the bench around the sink to hide the mess.”

THE KITCHEN SPACE 

When planning a kitchen, it’s important to give careful consideration to how the space will be used. Some questions need to be answered, like ‘Do you want people in the kitchen with you while you are cooking?’ and ‘Do you want people sitting on the other side of the bar talking to you while you cook?’ How a kitchen should function is a personal matter, and your kitchen design should reflect that

 

Those are just few kitchen tips to consider when building or buying a house.  For any queries drop us an email

info@constructionweb.co.ke 

 

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Construction of kenyatta university proposed hostels to break ground soon

 

Kenyatta University popularly known as K.U is on the verge of constructing a ksh 4.8 billion hostel that will see the invention of 6, 000 rooms.

The project is set to be developed by a New York-based private equity firm Africa Integras which confirms that it is now ready to proceed with the project after concluding negotiations with the financiers. The US fund was awarded the deal to lead the public private partnership (PPP) investment in 2014 and signed a contract in mid 2015.

Kenyatta University dean, Mr. Paul Gachanja confirmed the news and said that the erection of the hostels will hopefully commence mid this year.

“We are at the financial close stage for the project and expect to break ground mid this year. We are building it under the build-operate and transfer model where the contractor will manage the property for 20 years and later transfer it to the university,” said Dr Gachanja.

The mega development is projected to sit on a 20 acres piece of land and is expected to house up to 10,000 students and ease some of the housing shortage that the university currently undergoes since many students are seeking accommodation outside the university.

It will comprise of 9,350 undergraduate beds, 500 postgraduate beds and bed sitter units for 150 married students.

Since the US fund is set to undertake the appointment of an architect, a building firm and the hostel operator, they disclosed that it would partner with local firms namely Triad Architects, Broll Kenya Facility Managers and EPCO contractors in the project. International Finance Corporation, the World Bank private lending and advisory arm, was the lead adviser to the university on the project.

Africa Integras is a global investor focusing on developing education infrastructure including classrooms, student hostels, faculty housing and commercial and leisure facilities using the Public private partnership approach.

 

also read kenya national library set for completion this year

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Zoning restrictions in Runda

Residents of the upmarket Runda estate in Nairobi have opposed the development of a multi-billion shilling luxury hotel associated with wealthy businessman Ahmed Jibril.

Officials of Runda Association (RA) claim the proposed 200-bed hotel and conference facility that Paddock Investments is developing in the affluent neighbourhood is in breach of security and requirements of controlled development.

“The proposed development is located in a gated residential community of single dwelling homes within Runda Estate. Each house sits on approximately 0.5 of an acre and the developments are controlled.

“The amalgamation and change of user is against zoning restrictions and is in breach of other applicable special conditions regulating the parent grant of Runda Estate,” the residents’ association chairman Isaac Gitoho said in a letter sent to Nairobi governor Evans Kidero, Nema director-general Geoffrey Wahungu and John Mwatu, the general manager, design and construction, at the Kenya Urban Roads Authority.

The letter says Mr Jibril, who is Foreign Affairs secretary Amina Mohammed’s brother, purchased 18 plots for which he sought amalgamation of (15 of the plots) and also sought change of user from residential to commercial (Hotel and Hotel suites).

“This negates all planning regulations, compromises security of the neighbourhood, will contribute to ground water pollution and cause degradation of the Runda residential roads,” said Mr Gitoho.

Paddock Investments plans to build the 200-bed hotel and a conference centre in Runda targeting business tourists and diplomats working in the neighbourhood such as the United Nations, the US and Canadian embassies.

Paddock Investments directors include Amina Mulik Ali, ARJ Capital Limited, Sudhir Jayantilal Patel and Billow A. Kerrow. 

Documents obtained by the Business Daily show that the Nairobi county government has cleared development of the hotel.

Runda residents have, however, maintained their opposition to the project questioning how the county government approved amalgamation of the 15 plots and change of user from residential to a hotel.

“We as an association make a resolution to petition the county government to stop construction of the hotel,” former anti-graft chief PLO Lumumba, who is a resident, said at a meeting held at Lord Eroll Hotel last week.

Mr Jibril, who identified himself as the chairman of Paddock Investments, however maintained that the planned investment is above board and would not breach the set standards as claimed by the residents.

“I have good intentions and the area needs such an investment. All the approvals have been above board,” he said, even as he disassociated the Foreign Affairs secretary from his investment activities.

He said the proposed hotel would eliminate the need to approve numerous medium-sized hotels and guesthouses that expose the area to serious security lapses.

Runda Association, however, says in a letter to the Ministry of Land and Mr Kidero that there was no public participation in approving the change of use for the plots purchased as required by law.

Houses in Runda: The residents argue that the proposed development would irreversibly alter the character of the neigbourhood

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